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Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.

Intracellular Signaling Cascades

JoVE 10721

Intracellular signaling cascades amplify a signal originating extracellularly and directs it to its intended intracellular target resulting in transcription, translation, protein modifications, enzyme activation, cellular metabolism, mitosis, and/or apoptosis.

The most basic of signaling cascades involves the activation of second messengers and the release of kinases. Kinases activate or deactivate proteins and enzymes by adding a phosphate group to them. Phosphatases remove phosphate groups resulting in the deactivation or reactivation of proteins. The cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway is named for its second messenger, cAMP. This pathway is most often initiated when a ligand binds to a G-coupled protein receptor. The G-protein decouples from the receptor and triggers adenylate cyclase to synthesize cAMP from ATP. For each ligand-receptor interaction, multiple cAMP molecules are generated—amplifying the signal. cAMP activates protein kinase A (PKA). PKA is a tetramer molecule with two regulatory subunits and two active subunits. When four cAMP molecules interact with a PKA molecule, it releases the two active subunits. These PKA subunits phosphorylate target proteins and enzymes. In the case of gene expression, PKA activates CREB, a transcription factor in the nucleus. The steps that precede the intracellular signaling cascade that is the lig

 Core: Cell Signaling

Evaluation of Vascular Control Mechanisms Utilizing Video Microscopy of Isolated Resistance Arteries of Rats

1Department of Physical Therapy, Marquette University, 2Medical College of Wisconsin, 3Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia, Texas Wesleyan University, 5Office of Research, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 56133

 Medicine

Identification of Mediators of T-cell Receptor Signaling via the Screening of Chemical Inhibitor Libraries

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 2Singapore Immunology Network, A*STAR, 3Curiox Biosystems, 4Department of Immunobiology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit (KU) Leuven

JoVE 58946

 Immunology and Infection

Isolation of Retinal Arterioles for Ex Vivo Cell Physiology Studies

1Centre for Experimental Medicine, Queen's University of Belfast, 2Centre for Biomedical Sciences (Education), Queen's University of Belfast, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Naresuan University, 4School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University of Belfast

JoVE 57944

 Biology

Synthesis of a Deuterated Standard for the Quantification of 2-Arachidonoylglycerol in Caenorhabditis elegans

1Instituto de Química Rosario (IQUIR-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, 2Laboratorio de Fisiología Microbiana, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR), CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, 3Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario

JoVE 59882

 Biochemistry

Dual Effects of Melanoma Cell-derived Factors on Bone Marrow Adipocytes Differentiation

1Department of Rheumatology, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2Department of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Yongchuan Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 3Department of Medical Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center; Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University

JoVE 57329

 Cancer Research

Live Imaging Followed by Single Cell Tracking to Monitor Cell Biology and the Lineage Progression of Multiple Neural Populations

1Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Complutense University, 2University Institute for Neurochemistry Research (IUIN), 3Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC), 4Institute of Stem Cell Research, Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg/Munich, Germany Physiological Genomics, Biomedical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, 5Toxicology and Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Complutense University, 6Brain Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, 7Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich

JoVE 56291

 Neuroscience

Investigating Mast Cell Secretory Granules; from Biosynthesis to Exocytosis

1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 2Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University

JoVE 52505

 Immunology and Infection
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