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Arteriovenous Malformations: Abnormal formation of blood vessels that shunt arterial blood directly into veins without passing through the Capillaries. They usually are crooked, dilated, and with thick vessel walls. A common type is the congenital arteriovenous fistula. The lack of blood flow and oxygen in the capillaries can lead to tissue damage in the affected areas.

Isolation of Human Lymphatic Endothelial Cells by Multi-parameter Fluorescence-activated Cell Sorting

1Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, The Royal Children’s Hospital, 2Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, 3Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Clayton

JoVE 52691


 Medicine

Adult Mouse Venous Hypertension Model: Common Carotid Artery to External Jugular Vein Anastomosis.

1Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care and Center for Cerebrovascular Research, University of California, San Francisco, 2Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 3Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco

JoVE 50472


 Medicine

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The Arteriovenous (AV) Loop in a Small Animal Model to Study Angiogenesis and Vascularized Tissue Engineering

1Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery and Laboratory for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, University Hospital of Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), 2Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute for Postgraduate Studies, Baghdad University, 3Department of Plastic, Hand and Microsurgery, Sana Klinikum Hof GmbH

JoVE 54676


 Bioengineering

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Assessment of Pulmonary Capillary Blood Volume, Membrane Diffusing Capacity, and Intrapulmonary Arteriovenous Anastomoses During Exercise

1Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Alberta, 2Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, 3Divisions of Critical Care and Cardiology, University of Alberta, 4Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, 5G.F. MacDonald Centre for Lung Health

JoVE 54949


 Medicine

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A Novel Murine Model of Arteriovenous Fistula Failure: The Surgical Procedure in Detail

1Department of Nephrology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, 3Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, 4Division of Nephrology, University of Cincinnati

JoVE 53294


 Medicine

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Near-infrared Navigation System for Real-time Visualization of Blood Flow in Vascular Grafts

1Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, 2Office of Animal Resources, University of Missouri, 3Bioengineering, University of Missouri, 4Biomedical Science, University of Missouri, 5Surgery - Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Missouri, 6MU-iCATS, University of Missouri, 7Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Missouri

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JoVE 54927


 JoVE In-Press

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A Novel Strategy Combining Array-CGH, Whole-exome Sequencing and In Utero Electroporation in Rodents to Identify Causative Genes for Brain Malformations

1University of Florence, 2INSERM INMED, 3Aix-Marseille University, 4Plateforme Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire INMED, 5Royal Children's Hospital, 6Murdoch Children's Research Institute, 7University of Melbourne, 8Plateforme postgenomique INMED, 9University of Pavia, 10Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, 11Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, 12IRCCS Casimiro Mondino Foundation, 13Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, 14IRCCS Stella Maris, 15Columbia University

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JoVE 53570


 JoVE In-Press

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Intraluminal Drug Delivery to the Mouse Arteriovenous Fistula Endothelium

1Department of Surgery and the Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Program, Yale University, 2Department of Vascular Surgery, University of Tokyo, 3Department of Vascular Surgery, VA Connecticut Healthcare Systems, 4Department of Vascular Surgery, International University of Health and Welfare Mita Hospital

JoVE 53905


 Medicine

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Surgical Technique for the Implantation of Tissue Engineered Vascular Grafts and Subsequent In Vivo Monitoring

1Department of Physiology & Bio-Physics, State University of New York Buffalo School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, State University of New York Buffalo School of Medicine, 3Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, State University of New York Buffalo School of Engineering

JoVE 52354


 Bioengineering

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Fabrication of Small Caliber Stent-grafts Using Electrospinning and Balloon Expandable Bare Metal Stents

1Division of Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 2Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, 3Department of Cardioangiology, ICRC, St. Anne's University Hospital, 4Department of Vascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 5Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic

JoVE 54731


 Medicine

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A Model of Free Tissue Transfer: The Rat Epigastric Free Flap

1Anatomy Department, NOVA Medical School, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department and Burn Unit, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central - Hospital de São José, 3UCIBIO, Life Sciences Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 4CEDOC, NOVA Medical School, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 5Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, LIBPhys, 6Pathology Department, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central – Hospital de São José

JoVE 55281


 Medicine

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Ophthalmoscopic Examination

JoVE 10146

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA

The simplest ophthalmoscopes consist of an aperture to look through, a diopter indicator, and a disc for selecting lenses. The ophthalmoscope is primarily used to examine the fundus, or the inner wall of the posterior eye, which consists of the choroid, retina, fovea, macula, optic disc, and retinal vessels (Figure 1). The spherical eyeball collects and focuses light on the neurosensory cells of the retina. Light is refracted as it passes sequentially through the cornea, the lens, and the vitreous body. The first landmark observed during the funduscopic exam is the optic disc, which is where the optic nerve and retinal vessels enter the back of the eye (Figure 2). The disc usually contains a central whitish physiologic cup where the vessels enter; it normally occupies less than half the diameter of the entire disc. Just lateral and slightly inferior is the fovea, a darkened circular area that demarcates the point of central vision. Around this is the macula. A blind spot approximately 15° temporal to the line of gaze results from a lack of photoreceptor cells at the optic disc.

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Ultrasound Assessment of Flow-Mediated Dilation of the Brachial and Superficial Femoral Arteries in Rats

1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, 2Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, 3Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Utah, 4Department of Biochemistry, University of Utah, 5Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Utah, 6Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Department of Veterans Affairs

JoVE 54762


 Medicine

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The Aortic Ring Co-culture Assay: A Convenient Tool to Assess the Angiogenic Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells In Vitro

1Create Fertility Centre, 2Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, 4Department of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women's College Hospital

JoVE 56083


 Developmental Biology

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A Multimodal Imaging- and Stimulation-based Method of Evaluating Connectivity-related Brain Excitability in Patients with Epilepsy

1Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 3Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 4Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 53727


 Medicine

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Blood Pressure Measurement

JoVE 10083

Source: Meghan Fashjian, ACNP-BC, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston MA

The term blood pressure (BP) describes lateral pressures produced by blood upon the vessel walls. BP is a vital sign obtained routinely in hospital and outpatient settings, and is one of the most common medical assessments performed around the world. It can be determined directly with the intra-arterial catheter or by indirect method, which is a non-invasive, safe, easily reproducible, and thus most used technique. One of the most important applications of BP measurements is the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of hypertension, a condition that affects almost one third of the U.S. adult population and is one of the leading causes of the cardiovascular disease. BP can be measured automatically by oscillometry or manually by auscultation utilizing a sphygmomanometer, a device with an inflatable cuff to collapse the artery and a manometer to measure the pressure. Determination of the pulse-obliterating pressure by palpation is done prior to auscultation to give a rough estimate of the target systolic pressure. Next, the examiner places a stethoscope over the brachial artery of the patient, inflates the cuff above the expected systolic pressure, and then auscultates while deflating the cuff and o


 Physical Examinations I

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The Production of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Mouse Amniotic Fluid Cells Using a Transposon System

1Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Fondazione Istituto di Ricerca Pediatrica Citta della Speranza, 2Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 3Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Section, Developmental Biology and Cancer Programme, UCL Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital

JoVE 54598


 Developmental Biology

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Procedure for Human Saphenous Veins Ex Vivo Perfusion and External Reinforcement

1Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, 2Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, CHUV University Hospital, 3Department of Vascular Surgery, Pellegrin Hospital, University of Bordeaux, 4Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, CHUV University Hospital

JoVE 52079


 Medicine

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Analysis of Spinal Cord Blood Supply Combining Vascular Corrosion Casting and Fluorescence Microsphere Technique: A Feasibility Study in an Aortic Surgical Large Animal Model

1Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart Center Freiburg University, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 2Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University Medical Center Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg

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JoVE 56222


 JoVE In-Press

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