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Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.

Atmospheric Pressure Fabrication of Large-Sized Single-Layer Rectangular SnSe Flakes

1SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science & Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, 2Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 3NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, Centre for Life Sciences, 4Centre for Advanced 2D Materials and Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore

JoVE 57023


 Engineering

New Application of an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet as a Neuro-protective Agent Against Glucose Deprivation-induced Injury of SH-SY5Y Cells

1Department of Pathophysiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute/Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 2School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, 3Beijing Key Laboratory of Central Nervous System Injury, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 4Beijing Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine for Cerebrovascular Disease, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 5China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University

JoVE 56323


 Engineering

Mass Conservation and Flow Rate Measurements

JoVE 10445

Source: Ricardo Mejia-Alvarez and Hussam Hikmat Jabbar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate the calibration of a flow passage as a flowmeter using a control volume (CV) formulation [1, 2]. The CV analysis focuses on the macroscopic effect of flow on engineering systems, rather than the detailed description that could be achieved with a detailed differential analysis. These two techniques should be considered complementary approaches, as the CV analysis will give the engineer an initial basis on which route to pursue when designing a flow system. Broadly speaking, a CV analysis will give the engineer an idea of the dominant mass exchange in a system, and should ideally be the initial step to take before pursuing any detailed design or analysis via differential formulation. The main principle behind the CV formulation for mass conservation is to replace the details of a flow system by a simplified volume enclosed in what is known as the control surface (CS). This concept is imaginary and can be defined freely to cleverly simplify the analysis. For instance, the CS should 'cut' inlet and outlet ports in a direction perpendicular to the dominant velocity. Then, the analysis would consist of finding


 Mechanical Engineering

Determination of Impingement Forces on a Flat Plate with the Control Volume Method

JoVE 10444

Source: Ricardo Mejia-Alvarez and Hussam Hikmat Jabbar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate forces on bodies as the result of changes in the linear momentum of the flow around them using a control volume formulation [1, 2]. The control volume analysis focuses on the macroscopic effect of flow on engineering systems, rather than the detailed description that could be achieved with a differential analysis. Each one of these two techniques have a place in the toolbox of an engineering analyst, and they should be considered complementary rather than competing approaches. Broadly speaking, control volume analysis will give the engineer an idea of the dominant loads in a system. This will give her/him an initial feeling about what route to pursue when designing devices or structures, and should ideally be the initial step to take before pursuing any detailed design or analysis via differential formulation. The main principle behind the control volume formulation is to replace the details of a system exposed to a fluid flow by a simplified free body diagram defined by an imaginary closed surface dubbed the control volume. This diagram should contain all surface and body forces, the net flux of linear momentum t


 Mechanical Engineering

Conservation of Energy Approach to System Analysis

JoVE 10449

Source: Ricardo Mejia-Alvarez and Hussam Hikmat Jabbar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate the application of the energy conservation equation to determine the performance of a flow system. To this end, the energy equation for steady, incompressible flow is applied to a short pipe with a gate valve. The gate valve is then gradually closed and its influence on flow conditions is characterized. In addition, the interplay between this flow system and the fan that drives the flow is studied by comparing the system curve with the characteristic curve of the fan. This experiment helps understanding how energy dissipation is used by valves to restrict the flow. Also, under the same principle, this experiment offers a simple method to measure flow rate using the pressure change across a sharp entrance.


 Mechanical Engineering

Conducting Miller-Urey Experiments

1School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 3Institute for Advanced Study, 4Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, 5Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego

JoVE 51039


 Chemistry

Atomically Traceable Nanostructure Fabrication

1Zyvex Labs, 2Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 4Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, 5National Institute of Standards and Technology

JoVE 52900


 Engineering

Rapid and Low-cost Prototyping of Medical Devices Using 3D Printed Molds for Liquid Injection Molding

1Department of Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 2Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 3Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California

JoVE 51745


 Bioengineering

Preparing Anhydrous Reagents and Equipment

JoVE 10227

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Dana Lashley - College of William and Mary
Demonstrated by: Timothy Beck and Lucas Arney

Many reactions in organic chemistry are moisture-sensitive and must be carried out under careful exclusion of water. In these cases the reagents have a high affinity to react with water from the atmosphere and if left exposed the desired reaction will not take place or give poor yields, because the reactants are chemically altered. In order to prevent undesired reactions with H2O these reactions have to be carried out under an inert atmosphere. An inert atmosphere is generated by running the reaction under nitrogen gas, or in more sensitive cases, under a noble gas such as argon. Every component in such a reaction must be completely anhydrous, or free of water. This includes all reagents and solvents used as well as all glassware and equipment that will come into contact with the reagents. Extremely water-sensitive reactions must be carried out inside of a glovebox which provides a completely sealed off anhydrous environment to work under via a pair of gloves which protrudes out to one of the sides of the chamber.


 Organic Chemistry

The Effect of Reflux Ratio on Tray Distillation Efficiency

JoVE 10432

Source: Kerry M. Dooley and Michael G. Benton, Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA

Tray and packed columns are both commonly used for distillation, absorption, and stripping separation operations.1,2 The goal of this experiment is to distill a mixture of alcohols (methanol, isopropanol) and water in a sieve tray column and examine how closely simple theories of distillation based on equilibrium assumptions are followed. Sieve trays provide maximum interfacial area between the liquid and vapor. A P&ID schematic of the sieve tray (each tray contains holes in a support plate) distillation system can be found in Appendix A. In this demonstration, the Tray Distillation Unit (TDU) is started in total reflux mode. After a steady reflux drum level is attained, a switch to finite reflux mode is made by adjusting the bottoms, distillate and reflux flow rate controllers as necessary to maintain steady levels in the reflux drum and the reboiler, and to maintain a target reflux ratio RD = L/D. Once steady state is achieved (takes at least 90 min), liquid samples will be taken from the reflux drum, reboiler and on each tray and analyzed in a gas chromatograph. A typical protocol is to investigat


 Chemical Engineering

In Situ Monitoring of the Accelerated Performance Degradation of Solar Cells and Modules: A Case Study for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells

1TNO Solliance, Thin Film Technology, 2Eternal Sun, 3Hielkema Testequipment, 4Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN)-UMR 6502, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 5ReRa Solutions BV, 6Institute of Molecules and Materials, Radboud University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55897


 JoVE In-Press

Vapor-liquid Equilibrium

JoVE 10425

Source: Michael G. Benton and Kerry M. Dooley, Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA

Vapor-liquid equilibrium is paramount in engineering applications such as distillation, environmental modeling, and general process design. Understanding the interactions of components in a mixture is very important in designing, operating and analyzing such separators. The activity coefficient is an excellent tool for relating molecular interactions to mixture composition. Finding the molecular interaction parameters allows future prediction of the activity coefficients for a mixture using a model. Vapor-liquid equilibrium is a critical factor in common processes in the chemical industry, such as distillation. Distillation is the process of separating liquids by their boiling point. A liquid mixture is fed into a distillation unit or column, then boiled. Vapor-liquid equilibrium data is useful for determining how liquid mixtures will separate. Because the liquids have different boiling points, one liquid will boil into a vapor and rise in the column, while the other will stay as a liquid and drain through the unit. The process is very important in a variety of industries. In this experiment, the activity coefficients of mixtures of various com


 Chemical Engineering

PTR-ToF-MS Coupled with an Automated Sampling System and Tailored Data Analysis for Food Studies: Bioprocess Monitoring, Screening and Nose-space Analysis

1Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), 2Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bolzano, 3Department of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Foggia, 4Institute of Analytical Chemistry & Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens Universität Innsbruck, 5Institut für Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Leopold-Franzens Universität Innsbruck

JoVE 54075


 Chemistry

Combining Single-molecule Manipulation and Imaging for the Study of Protein-DNA Interactions

1LENS - European Laboratory for Non-linear Spectroscopy, University of Florence, 2Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, 3Department of Biology, University of Florence, 4Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, 5National Institute of Optics-National Research Council, Italy, 6International Center of Computational Neurophotonics

JoVE 51446


 Biology

Purification of Ferrocene by Sublimation

JoVE 10429

Source: Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University 

Sublimation, the direct phase transition of a solid into a gas without first becoming a liquid, takes place at temperatures and pressures lower than that of the compound's triple point (Figure 1).The process of sublimation can be utilized to purify both organic and inorganic solids. During the purification technique, a solid is heated directly into the gas-phase. All non-volatile impurities are left behind while the vaporized compound is then collected (deposition) as a solid on a cold surface. Here, we will use sublimation to purify ferrocene, an inorganic solid with a triple point temperature of 183 °C.1 Figure 1. Generic phase diagram. The colored lines represent the pressure and temperature requirements for phase transitions. Distillation of a solid will occur at pressures and temperatures above the triple point, represented by the green line in the phase diagram. The blue line represents the temperature and pressure conditions where sublimation occurs.


 Inorganic Chemistry

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