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Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the Thorax; Lumbosacral region; or the adjacent regions.

Electrode Positioning and Montage in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Material Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, 2Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Charité, University Medicine Berlin, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York

JoVE 2744


 Neuroscience

Ovine Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Model Utilizing a Lateral Retroperitoneal Drill Bit Injury

1Department of Surgery, Monash University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Monash University, 3The Ritchie Centre, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, 4Proteobioactives, Pty Ltd, 5Department of Neurosurgery, St Vincent's Hospital, 6Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, 7School of Chemical Engineering, University of Queensland, 8Department of Neurosurgery, Monash Health

JoVE 55753


 Medicine

Male Rectal Exam

JoVE 10102

Source: Joseph Donroe, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

While its usefulness in cancer screening is debated, the male rectal examination remains an important part of the physical exam. The exam is indicated in selected patients with lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary and/or fecal incontinence or retention, back pain, anorectal symptoms, abdominal complaints, trauma patients, unexplained anemia, weight loss, or bone pain. There are no absolute contraindications to the rectal exam; however, relative contraindications include patient unwillingness to undergo the exam, severe rectal pain, recent anorectal surgery or trauma, and neutropenia. When performing the rectal exam, the examiner should conceptualize the relevant anatomy. The external anal sphincter is the most distal part of the anal canal, which extends three to four centimeters before transitioning into the rectum. The prostate gland lies anterior to the rectum, just beyond the anal canal. The posterior surface of the prostate, including its apex, base, lateral lobes, and median sulcus, can be palpated through the rectal wall (Figure 1). The normal consistency of the prostate is similar to the thenar eminence when the hand is in a tight fist. The thumb knuckle is representativ


 Physical Examinations II

Lower Back Exam

JoVE 10177

Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA

The back is the most common source of pain in the body. Examination of the back can be a challenge due to its numerous structures, including the bones, discs, ligaments, nerves, and muscles-all of which can generate pain. Sometimes, the location of the pain can be suggestive of etiology. The essential components of the lower back exam include inspection and palpation for signs of deformity and inflammation, evaluation of the range of motion (ROM) of the back, testing the strength of the muscles innervated by the nerves exiting in the lumbar-sacral spine, neurological evaluation, and special tests (including the Stork test and Patrick's test).


 Physical Examinations III

An In Vitro Organ Culture Model of the Murine Intervertebral Disc

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, 2Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis, 4Department of Materials Science and Mechanical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis

JoVE 55437


 Bioengineering

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