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beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in Cell adhesion and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds Cadherins and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the Actin in the Cytoskeleton via Alpha catenin. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of Wnt protein-mediated Signal transduction pathways.

Cleavage and Blastulation

JoVE 10908

After a large-single-celled zygote is produced via fertilization, the process of cleavage occurs while zygotes travel through the uterine tube. Cleavage is a mitotic cell division that does not result in growth. With each round of successive cell division, daughter cells get increasingly smaller.

At the beginning of embryogenesis, maternal mRNAs control development. However, by the eight-cell stage of cleavage, embryonic genes become activated in a process called zygotic genome activation (ZGA). As a result, maternal mRNAs get degraded, and ZGA causes a transition from maternal to zygotic genetic control of developing an embryo. Although maternal mRNAs get degraded, previously translated proteins may remain in the embryo through later stages of development. Cleavage patterns vary between organisms depending on the presence and distribution of egg yolk amongst other factors. For example, mammals have a holoblastic rotational cleavage pattern. They are holoblastic because they have sparse, but evenly distributed yolk and therefore end up with a cleavage furrow that extends through the entire embryo as opposed to being meroblastic where the cleavage furrow does not extend through the yolk-dense portion of the cytoplasm. At the onset of cleavage, rotational cleavage begins when the zygote first divides to form two smaller daughter cells called blas

 Core: Reproduction and Development

The Subventricular Zone En-face: Wholemount Staining and Ependymal Flow

1Department of Neurosurgery, The Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco - UCSF, 2Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 3Department of Neuroscience and Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 4Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 5Center for Motor Neuron Biology and Disease, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University

JoVE 1938

 Neuroscience

Using Confocal Analysis of Xenopus laevis to Investigate Modulators of Wnt and Shh Morphogen Gradients

1Department of Biomedical Science, The Bateson Centre, University of Sheffield, 2Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, 3Department of Cardiovascular Science, The Bateson Centre, University of Sheffield, 4School of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, 5Biology Department, University of York

JoVE 53162

 Developmental Biology

High Efficiency Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes and Characterization by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, LKS Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong University, 5Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 6Cardiovascular Research Center, Biotechnology and Bioengineering Center, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 52010

 Biology

Light-mediated Reversible Modulation of the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway during Cell Differentiation and Xenopus Embryonic Development

1Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 3Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 4Center for Biophysics and Quantitative Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JoVE 55823

 Developmental Biology

Forskolin-induced Swelling in Intestinal Organoids: An In Vitro Assay for Assessing Drug Response in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

1Foundation Hubrecht Organoid Technology, 2Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Regenerative Medicine Centre Utrecht, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Centre Utrecht, 3Department of Stem Cells and Cancer, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 4Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Research, University Medical Centre Utrecht

JoVE 55159

 Medicine

Quantitation of Protein Expression and Co-localization Using Multiplexed Immuno-histochemical Staining and Multispectral Imaging

1Division of Urologic Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, 2Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 3Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 4O’Brien Urology Research Center, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health

JoVE 53837

 Biology

Generation of Human 3D Lung Tissue Cultures (3D-LTCs) for Disease Modeling

1Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, 2German Center of Lung Research (DZL), 3Translational Lung Research and CPC-M bioArchive, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich DZL/CPC-M, 4Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lung Bioengineering and Regeneration, Lund University, 5Wallenberg Center for Molecular Medicine, Lund University, 6Stem Cell Centre, Lund University, 7Asklepios Fachkliniken Munich-Gauting, 8Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado

JoVE 58437

 Medicine

Structure-function Studies in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Using Recombinase-mediated Cassette Exchange

1Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, 2Inflammation Research Center, VIB, 3Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, 4Cancer Research Institute Ghent (CRIG), 5Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, 6Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, 7Mammalian Functional Genetics Laboratory, Division of Blood Cancers, Australian Centre for Blood Diseases, Department of Clinical Haematology, Monash University and Alfred Health Alfred Centre

JoVE 55575

 Developmental Biology

A Rat Tibial Growth Plate Injury Model to Characterize Repair Mechanisms and Evaluate Growth Plate Regeneration Strategies

1Department of Bioengineering, Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 3Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 4Department of Orthopedics, Gates Center for Regenerative Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus

JoVE 55571

 Medicine

Modeling Ovarian Cancer Multicellular Spheroid Behavior in a Dynamic 3D Peritoneal Microdevice

1School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, 3Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biochip Technology, Biotech and Health Centre, Shenzhen Research Institutes of City University of Hong Kong

JoVE 55337

 Bioengineering
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