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Blood Volume: Volume of circulating Blood. It is the sum of the Plasma volume and Erythrocyte volume.

Blood Withdrawal I

JoVE 10246

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


Blood collection is a common requirement for research studies that involve mice and rats. The method of blood withdrawal in mice and rats is dependent upon the volume of blood needed, the frequency of the sampling, the health status of the …

 Lab Animal Research

Hormonal Regulation

JoVE 10893

The renin-aldosterone system is an endocrine system which guides the renal absorption of water and electrolytes, thus managing blood pressure and osmoregulation. Activation of the system begins in the kidneys with a small cluster of cells adjacent to the afferent and efferent blood vessels of the renal corpuscle. As the nephrons are filtering blood, juxtaglomerular cells monitor blood pressure. If they detect a decrease in pressure, they release the hormone renin into the bloodstream. Circulating renin interacts with angiotensinogen, a precursor protein synthesized by the liver, to create angiotensin I. A final step cleaves angiotensin I into angiotensin II, a process achieved by angiotensin-converting enzyme, or ACE, which is released by the lungs. Angiotensin II temporarily increases blood pressure by contracting smaller blood vessels. It also induces the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex of the kidneys. Aldosterone directly stimulates the reabsorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium by the kidneys to maintain electrolyte balance. Moreover, circulating levels of aldosterone stimulate the release of antidiuretic hormone, or ADH, by the hypothalamus in the brain. Upon reaching the kidneys, ADH upregulates aquaporin channels in the nephrons which increase the water retention in the blood vessels. The combined effects of

 Core: Biology

Filtration

JoVE 10891

The function of the kidneys is to filter, reabsorb, secrete, and excrete. Every day the kidneys filter nearly 180 liters of blood, initially removing water and solutes but ultimately returning nearly all filtrates into circulation with the help of osmoregulatory hormones. This process removes wastes and toxins but is also crucial to maintain water and electrolyte levels. Most of these functions are performed by the tiny but numerous nephrons contained within the kidneys. Blood enters the renal corpuscle of the nephron through a glomerulus of capillaries. The capillaries are surrounded by a structure called the Bowman’s capsule which absorbs water and most solutes from the blood. The blood pressure from capillaries pushes these into the capsules. If the blood pressure is too high, as seen in hypertension, the capillaries can weaken and harden, reducing the ability of the kidney to filter the blood. The filtrate from the corpuscles empty into the proximal convoluted tubules and the descending portions of the Loop of Henle. Here nearly 70% of solutes—salt, glucose, amino acids, and bicarbonates—are reabsorbed into the surrounding capillaries. Circulating blood hormones involved in osmoregulation induce reabsorption of sodium, calcium, or more water if needed to increase or decrease blood pressure and regulate electrolytes. Sec

 Core: Biology

Central Venous Access Device Dressing Change

JoVE 10311

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT


Central venous access devices (CVAD), commonly known as central lines or central catheters, are large-bore intravenous (IV) catheters that are introduced into the central circulation. Typically, CVADs terminate in the superior vena…

 Nursing Skills

Continuous Blood Sampling in Small Animal Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Enables the Measurement of the Arterial Input Function

1Institute of Anatomy, Rostock University Medical Center, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock University Medical Center, 3Core Facility Multimodal Small Animal Imaging, Rostock University Medical Center, 4Rudolf-Zenker-Institute for Experimental Surgery, Rostock University Medical Center

JoVE 59701

 Medicine

An All-on-chip Method for Rapid Neutrophil Chemotaxis Analysis Directly from a Drop of Blood

1Institute of Applied Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2University of Science and Technology of China, 3Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, 4Department of Biosystems Engineering, University of Manitoba, 5Seven Oaks General Hospital, 6Department of Immunology, University of Manitoba, 7Department of Biological Sciences, University of Manitoba

JoVE 55615

 Immunology and Infection

Characterization of Tumor Cells Using a Medical Wire for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells: A 3D Approach Based on Immunofluorescence and DNA FISH

1Biosciences Laboratory, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, 2Associazione Annastaccatolisa Onlus, 3Nuclear Medicine Unit, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS

JoVE 56936

 Cancer Research

Humanized NOG Mice for Intravaginal HIV Exposure and Treatment of HIV Infection

1Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, 3Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital, 5Department of Biology, University of Nebraska at Omaha

JoVE 60723

 Immunology and Infection

Ferric Chloride-induced Canine Carotid Artery Thrombosis: A Large Animal Model of Vascular Injury

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Ohio State University, 2Department of Surgery, Ohio State University, 3Department of Surgery, Duke University, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Ohio State University

JoVE 57981

 Medicine

Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic Clamps in Conscious, Unrestrained Mice

1Diabetes and Obesity Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute at Lake Nona, 2Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Vanderbilt Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 4Department of Pediatrics and Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine

JoVE 3188

 Medicine

Using Deuterium Oxide as a Non-Invasive, Non-Lethal Tool for Assessing Body Composition and Water Consumption in Mammals

1Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, 3Department of Animal Science, University of Missouri, 4School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, 5USDA USFS Northern Research Station

JoVE 59442

 Environment

Combined Near-infrared Fluorescent Imaging and Micro-computed Tomography for Directly Visualizing Cerebral Thromboemboli

1Molecular Imaging and Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Dongguk University College of Medicine, 2Biomedical Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 3Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 4Departments of Radiology and Cancer Systems Imaging, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

JoVE 54294

 Medicine

Immunoglobulin Gene Sequence Analysis In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: From Patient Material To Sequence Interpretation

1Institute of Applied Biosciences, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 2Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 3Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 4Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 5Department of Immunology, Laboratory for Medical Immunology, Erasmus University Medical Center, 6Hematology Department, Nikea General Hospital, 7Assistance publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hopital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Department of Hematology, and UPMC University Paris 06, UMRS 1138, 8Division of Experimental Oncology, IRCCS Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele and Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele

JoVE 57787

 Cancer Research

Evaluation of Vascular Control Mechanisms Utilizing Video Microscopy of Isolated Resistance Arteries of Rats

1Department of Physical Therapy, Marquette University, 2Medical College of Wisconsin, 3Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia, Texas Wesleyan University, 5Office of Research, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 56133

 Medicine

Shunt Surgery, Right Heart Catheterization, and Vascular Morphometry in a Rat Model for Flow-induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

1Center for Congenital Heart Diseases, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Beatrix Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 2Research and Development Facility, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen

JoVE 55065

 Medicine

A Familial Hypercholesterolemia Human Liver Chimeric Mouse Model Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Hepatocytes

1Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, 2The Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, 3School of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Vascular Medicine, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Joint School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health and Guangzhou Medical University, 5Laboratory of RNA, Chromatin, and Human Disease, CAS Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 6Research Centre of Heart, Brain, Hormone, and Healthy Ageing, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, 7Hong Kong-Guangdong Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research Centre, University of Hong Kong and Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health

JoVE 57556

 Developmental Biology

Recording Brain Electromagnetic Activity During the Administration of the Gaseous Anesthetic Agents Xenon and Nitrous Oxide in Healthy Volunteers

1Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University of Technology, 2Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, 3Brain and Psychological Science Research Centre, Swinburne University of Technology, 4Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Auckland

JoVE 56881

 Neuroscience

Using Retinal Imaging to Study Dementia

1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Therese Pei Fong Chow Research Centre for Prevention of Dementia, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4Gerald Choa Neuroscience Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5Memory Aging and Cognition Centre, National University Health System, 6Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, 7Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 8Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore

JoVE 56137

 Medicine

Ischemic Tissue Injury in the Dorsal Skinfold Chamber of the Mouse: A Skin Flap Model to Investigate Acute Persistent Ischemia

1Department of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 2Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, Aesthetic and Hand Surgery, University Hospital of Basel, 3Institute for Clinical and Experimental Surgery, University of Saarland, 4Division of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University Hospital Zurich

JoVE 51900

 Medicine

Supramaximal Intensity Hypoxic Exercise and Vascular Function Assessment in Mice

1Division of Angiology, Heart and Vessel Department, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), 2Institute of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, 3Neonatal Research Laboratory, Clinic of Neonatology, Department Woman-Mother-Child, Lausanne University Hospital

JoVE 58708

 Behavior

A Cross-Disciplinary and Multi-Modal Experimental Design for Studying Near-Real-Time Authentic Examination Experiences

1Department of Engineering Education, College of Engineering, Utah State University, 2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Utah State University, 3Department of Educational Psychology, College of Education, University of Oregon

JoVE 60037

 Behavior

Inducing Acute Liver Injury in Rats via Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Exposure Through an Orogastric Tube

1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Soroka Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Soroka University Medical Center and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Soroka University Medical Center and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60695

 JoVE In-Press

Semi-Minimal Invasive Method to Induce Myocardial Infarction in Rats and the Assessment of Cardiac Function by an Isolated Working Heart System

1Ludwig-Boltzmann-Institute for Cardiovascular Research at the Center for Biomedical Research, Medical University of Vienna, 2Concept & Ideation, Electrical Sector/EMEA/Power Distribution Division, Eaton Industries (Austria) GmbH, 3Vetfarm and Clinical Unit for Herd Health Management in Ruminants, Clinic for Ruminants, Vetmeduni Vienna

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 61033

 JoVE In-Press

Studying Triple Negative Breast Cancer Using Orthotopic Breast Cancer Model

1Molecular Mechanism Section, Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, 2Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Small Animal Imaging Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60316

 JoVE In-Press

Invasive Hemodynamic Assessment for the Right Ventricular System and Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Mice

1Beijing Key Laboratory of Pre-clinical Research and Evaluation for Cardiovascular Implant Materials, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 2Laboratory Animal Center, Peking University, 3Center of Cardiac Surgery for Adults, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College

JoVE 60090

 Medicine
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