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Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.

Regulating Temperature in the Lab: Applying Heat

JoVE 5043

Although many experimental assays are performed at room temperature (RT; ~20-25°C), it is not uncommon for experiments, or parts of experiments, to require some type of temperature regulation. This video discusses the different reasons for and temperatures at which a scientist may want to “keep things warm”. For example, sometime, cells need to be…

 General Laboratory Techniques

Physiology of the Circulatory System- Concept

JoVE 10625

Homeostasis

Conditions in the external environment of an organism can change rapidly and drastically. To survive, organisms must maintain a fairly constant internal environment, which involves continuous regulation of temperature, pH, and other factors. This balanced state is known as homeostasis, which describes the processes by which organisms maintain their optimal internal…

 Lab Bio

Vaporization

JoVE 10675

Vaporization changes a liquid substance into a gaseous or vaporous substance. To achieve this, kinetic energy must be greater than the intermolecular forces that keep molecules bonded. The amount of energy needed to vaporize a quantity of liquid at a given pressure and a constant temperature is called the heat of vaporization. When liquid water is vaporized, it turns into steam.

Adding heat to a liquid until it reaches its boiling point is one method of vaporization. Boiling is a type of vaporization that occurs when vapor bubbles form beneath the surface of the liquid. The boiling point varies based on atmospheric pressure. With more atmospheric pressure, more energy is needed to reach the boiling point. At sea level, water boils at 100 oC (212 oF)—this sea level temperature is called the normal or atmospheric boiling point. At higher elevations, water requires less energy to boil. On Mount Everest, water boils at about 71 oC (160 oF). In space, which lacks an atmosphere but is also extremely cold, water will first boil and then freeze—a consequence of the high heat capacity of water. Evaporation, another type of vaporization, occurs below the boiling point. In this process, water molecules with enough kinetic energy to surpass intermolecular forces escape the surface of the water as vapor. The remain

 Core: Chemistry of Life

Whole Body and Regional Quantification of Active Human Brown Adipose Tissue Using 18F-FDG PET/CT

1Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Obesity Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 2National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 3Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 58469

 Medicine

Types of RNA

JoVE 10800

Three main types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These RNAs perform diverse functions and can be broadly classified as protein-coding or non-coding RNA. Non-coding RNAs play important roles in the regulation of gene expression in response to developmental and environmental changes. Non-coding RNAs in prokaryotes can be manipulated to develop more effective antibacterial drugs for human or animal use. The central dogma of molecular biology states that DNA contains the information that encodes proteins and RNA uses this information to direct protein synthesis. Different types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis. Based on whether or not they encode proteins, RNA is broadly classified as protein-coding or non-coding RNA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the protein-coding RNA. It consists of codons—sequences of three nucleotides that encode a specific amino acid. Transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are non-coding RNA. tRNA acts as an adaptor molecule that reads the mRNA sequence and places amino acids in the correct order in the growing polypeptide chain. rRNA and other proteins make up the ribosome—the seat of protein synthesis in the cell. During translation, ribosomes move along an mRNA strand where they stabilize the binding of tRNA molecules and catalyze the for

 Core: Gene Expression

What is Biology?

JoVE 10647

Biology is the natural science that focuses on the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, development, interactions, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. The scope of the field is extensive and is divided into several specialized disciplines, such as anatomy, physiology, ethology, genetics, and many more.

All living things share a few key traits: cellular organization, heritable genetic material and the ability to adapt/evolve, metabolism to regulate energy needs, the ability to interact with the environment, maintain homeostasis, reproduce, and the ability to grow and change. Despite its complexity, life is organized and structured. The cell theory in biology states that all living organisms are composed of one or more cells. The cell is the basic unit of life, and all cells arise from previously existing cells. Even single-celled organisms, such as bacteria, have structures that allow them to carry out essential functions, such as interacting with the environment and carry out chemical reactions that maintain life, or metabolism. In multicellular organisms, cells work together to form tissues, organs, organ systems, and finally, entire organisms. This hierarchical organization can extend further into populations, communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere. An organism’s genetic material, the biologi

 Core: Scientific Inquiry

High-frequency Ultrasound Imaging of the Abdominal Aorta

JoVE 10397

Source: Amelia R. Adelsperger, Evan H. Phillips, and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


High-frequency ultrasound systems are used to acquire high resolution images. Here, the use of a state-of-the-art system will be demonstrated to image the morphology and …

 Biomedical Engineering

Considerations for Rodent Surgery

JoVE 10285

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals1 dictates that rodent survival surgery be performed aseptically. Aseptic technique utilizes specific practices that minimize the contamination of the surgical site, including…

 Lab Animal Research

Production Efficiency

JoVE 10929

Net production efficiency (NPE) is the efficiency at which organisms assimilate energy into biomass for the next trophic level. Due to low metabolic rates and less energy spent on thermoregulatory processes, the NPE of ectotherms (cold-blooded animals) is 10 times higher than endotherms (warm-blooded animals).

Energy flows through ecosystems, from one organism to the next. However, only the energy stored in an organism as biomass is available as food for the next trophic level. The rest of the energy is lost over time as heat as a byproduct of metabolic processes and excreted wastes. The efficiency with which organisms assimilate this usable energy into biomass is called net production efficiency (NPE), or the percentage of energy stored in biomass that is not used for respiration. For example, in a study of a desert scrub ecosystem, it was found that only 0.016% of the energy produced by primary producers was then assimilated into small herbivore mammal tissue and available for carnivores in this system. Endotherms like birds and mammals typically have low production efficiencies due to the larger quantities of energy spent maintaining constant high body temperatures, and high metabolic rates. On the other hand, the NPE for ectotherms is an order of magnitude higher due to their lower metabolic rates and thermoregulatory behaviors. Therefore, a mammal

 Core: Ecosystems

Anesthesia Induction and Maintenance

JoVE 10263

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals ("The Guide") states that pain assessment and alleviation are integral components of the veterinary care of laboratory animals.1 The definition of anesthesia is the loss …

 Lab Animal Research

Photoacoustic Tomography to Image Blood and Lipids in the Infrarenal Aorta

JoVE 10395

Source: Gurneet S. Sangha and Craig J. Goergen, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging biomedical imaging modality that utilizes light generated acoustic waves to obtain compositional information from tissue. PAT can be used to image …

 Biomedical Engineering

Compound Administration IV

JoVE 10214

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


There are many commonly used routes for compound administration in laboratory mice and rats. Protocols may, however, require the use of the less commonly used routes: intracardiac, footpad, and retro-orbital injections. Specialized…

 Lab Animal Research

Near-infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

JoVE 10394

Source: Arvin H. Soepriatna1, Kelsey A. Bullens2, and Craig J. Goergen1


1 Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


2 Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging…

 Biomedical Engineering

Modeling Social Stress

JoVE 5429

Stress negatively affects our quality of life. In particular, some individuals experience social stress when placed in a social environment that they are unfamiliar with or have difficulty adjusting to. Since it is hard to examine mechanisms of social stress in humans, modeling this condition in animals may help scientist in developing new therapies for treating this commonly encountered…

 Behavioral Science

A Temperature Gradient Assay to Determine Thermal Preferences of Drosophila Larvae

1Neuroscience Research Institute and Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2Division of Cell Signaling, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 3Thermal Biology Group, Exploratory Research Center on Life and Living Systems, National Institutes of Natural Sciences

JoVE 57963

 Neuroscience

Using Deuterium Oxide as a Non-Invasive, Non-Lethal Tool for Assessing Body Composition and Water Consumption in Mammals

1Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri, 2School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, 3Department of Animal Science, University of Missouri, 4College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, 5USDA USFS Northern Research Station

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 59442

 JoVE In-Press

Human Brown Adipose Tissue Depots Automatically Segmented by Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Registered Magnetic Resonance Images

1Chemical and Physical Biology Program, Vanderbilt University, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Radiology & Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 4Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University

JoVE 52415

 Medicine

A Comparative Study of Drug Delivery Methods Targeted to the Mouse Inner Ear: Bullostomy Versus Transtympanic Injection

1Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas (IIBm) Alberto Sols CSIC-UAM, 2Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 3Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Paz (IdiPAZ), 4Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 5Departmento de Otorrino laringología, Hospital Universitario La Paz

JoVE 54951

 Biology

Bovine Mammary Gland Biopsy Techniques

1National Animal Nutrition Program, a National Research Support Project (NRSP-9), Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, 2School of Performing Arts, Virginia Tech, 3Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, The Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, 4Department of Dairy Science, Virginia Tech, 5Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, 6School of Visual Arts, Virginia Tech

JoVE 58602

 Biology

Magnetic-Activated Cell Sorting Strategies to Isolate and Purify Synovial Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells from a Rabbit Model

1Postgraduate institution, Guangzhou Medical University, 2Guangdong Provincial Research Center for Artificial Intelligence and Digital Orthopedic Technology, 3Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Shenzhen Laboratory of Digital Orthopaedic Engineering, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital (The First Hospital Affiliated to Shenzhen University), 4Department of Chemistry, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5Shenzhen Kangning Hospital, Shenzhen Mental Health Center

JoVE 57466

 Biology

Performing Permanent Distal Middle Cerebral with Common Carotid Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats to Study Cortical Ischemia with Sustained Disability

1Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King's College London, University of London, 2Department of Neuroimaging, James Black Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, University of London, 3Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, Wellcome Surgical Institute, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, 4Research Service, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, 5Neurology Service, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, 6Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Neuroscience Research Institute, Loyola University Chicago, 7Department of Oncology, The Gray Institute for Radiation, Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford

JoVE 53106

 Medicine

Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats

1CullenWebb Animal Neurology & Ophthalmology Center, Riverview, NB, 2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, University of Calgary, 4Department of Neuroscience, University of Calgary

JoVE 2138

 Neuroscience

Non-restraining EEG Radiotelemetry: Epidural and Deep Intracerebral Stereotaxic EEG Electrode Placement

1Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, BfArM), 2Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, DZNE)

JoVE 54216

 Neuroscience

Use of a Piglet Model for the Study of Anesthetic-induced Developmental Neurotoxicity (AIDN): A Translational Neuroscience Approach

1Department of Anesthesiology, Ohio State University College of Medicine, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 3Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section of Anatomic Pathology, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, 5Department of Pathology and Anatomy, Ohio State University College of Medicine, 6Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital

JoVE 55193

 Medicine

Morris Water Maze Test: Optimization for Mouse Strain and Testing Environment

1Department of Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience, West Virginia University, 2Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, 3Department of Neurology, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, 4Department of Neuroscience, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, 5GRECC, VA Medical Center, 6Center for Neuroscience, Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research, West Virginia University

JoVE 52706

 Behavior

Characterizing Multiscale Mechanical Properties of Brain Tissue Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Impact Indentation, and Rheometry

1Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 4Department of Neurology, The F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 54201

 Neuroscience

Utilizing the Modified T-Maze to Assess Functional Memory Outcomes After Cardiac Arrest

1Department of Neurology, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, 2Center for Brain Health, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, 3Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, 4Department of Neurology, Cerebral Vascular Disease Research Laboratories, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 5Department of Biomedical Sciences, West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine

JoVE 56694

 Behavior
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