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Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain Bdnf has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)

Enzyme-linked Receptors

JoVE 10723

Enzyme-linked receptors are proteins which act as both receptor and enzyme, activating multiple intracellular signals. This is a large group of receptors that include the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family. Many growth factors and hormones bind to and activate the RTKs.

RTKs are also called neurotrophin (NT) receptors because they bind nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), NT-3, NT-4/5, NT-6, and NT-7. The growth factors typically bind to an RTK subfamily of tropomyosin-related kinase receptors (Trk): Trk A, Trk B, and Trk C. Trk A is specific for NGF, NT-6, and NT-7. Trk B binds BDNF and NT-4/5, while Trk C is specific for NT-3. NT-3 can also bind with low affinity to Trk A and TrkB. The Trk receptors have a single transmembrane domain, with a growth factor binding site on the extracellular portion and an enzyme activation site intracellularly. Trk receptors can be monomeric or dimerized, where two Trk receptors are bound together. To activate the receptor, a single growth factor molecule either binds two monomeric receptors, causing them to dimerize, or it binds both sites on a pre-dimerized receptor. Once the receptors are bound, the tyrosines phosphorylate by pulling phosphates from ATP and donating them to each other, a process called “autophosphorylation.” This opens docking sites along the i

 Core: Cell Signaling

Rapid Neuronal Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Measuring Network Activity on Micro-electrode Arrays

1Department of Cognitive Neurosciences, Radboudumc, 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, 3Department of Human Genetics, Radboudumc, 4Department of Molecular Developmental Biology, Radboud University

JoVE 54900

 Developmental Biology

Primary Cell Culture of Purified GABAergic or Glutamatergic Neurons Established through Fluorescence-activated Cell Sorting

1Institut für Integrative Neuroanatomie, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 2Department for Cytometry and Cellsorting, German Rheumatism Research Center, Leibniz Institute, 3Departments of Genetic and Behavioral Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma University

JoVE 58974

 Neuroscience

Light-mediated Reversible Modulation of the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway during Cell Differentiation and Xenopus Embryonic Development

1Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 3Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 4Center for Biophysics and Quantitative Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JoVE 55823

 Developmental Biology

TIRFM and pH-sensitive GFP-probes to Evaluate Neurotransmitter Vesicle Dynamics in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells: Cell Imaging and Data Analysis

1Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 2San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute University, 3CEND Center of Excellence in Neurodegenerative Diseases, Università degli Studi di Milano

JoVE 52267

 Neuroscience

Short-Term Free-Floating Slice Cultures from the Adult Human Brain

1Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, 2Department of Physiology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, 3Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, 4Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University, 5Clinical Hospital at the Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 59845

 JoVE In-Press

A Chronic Immobilization Stress Protocol for Inducing Depression-Like Behavior in Mice

1Department of Anatomy and Convergence Medical Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, Bio Anti-aging Medical Research Center, Gyeongsang National University Medical School, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Pusan National University, 3Department of Physiology and Convergence Medical Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University Medical School

JoVE 59546

 Behavior

Conversion of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) into Functional Spinal and Cranial Motor Neurons Using PiggyBac Vectors

1Department of Biology and Biotechnology Charles Darwin, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy, 2Center for Life Nano Science, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italy, 3Laboratory of Stem Cell biology and Molecular Embryology, The Rockefeller University, USA, 4Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

JoVE 59321

 Neuroscience

Characterization of the Interaction of Primary Cells from the Rat Inner Ear with Polymer Films As Coatings for Cochlear Implant Electrode Surface

1Institute of Neuroanatomy and Cell Biology, Hannover Medical School, 2Institute for Technical Chemistry, University of Technology Braunschweig, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hannover Medical School

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56792

 JoVE In-Press

A Convenient Method for Extraction and Analysis with High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography of Catecholamine Neurotransmitters and Their Metabolites

1School of Public Health of Southeast University, Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety Research Institute of Southeast University in Suzhou, 2Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), School of Biological Science & Medical Engineering, Southeast University, 3School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, 4British Columbia Academy, Nanjing Foreign Language School

JoVE 56445

 Chemistry

Corneal Tissue Engineering: An In Vitro Model of the Stromal-nerve Interactions of the Human Cornea

1Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 2Department of Ophthalmology/Dean McGee Eye Institute, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 3Department of Physiology, Harold Hamm Diabetes Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

JoVE 56308

 Developmental Biology

Human Neural Organoids for Studying Brain Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases

1Laboratory of Tumor Immunology, Translational Research Center in Onco-Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine Specialties, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 2Department of Pathology and Immunology, University Medical Center, University of Geneva, 3Laboratory of Toxicology and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Geneva University Hospitals, 4Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Hepia/HES-SO, University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, 5Laboratory of Experimental cell therapy, Department of Diagnostics, Geneva University Hospitals

JoVE 59682

 Bioengineering
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