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Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain Ef hand motifs.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

JoVE 10969

The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) in eukaryotic cells is a substantial network of interconnected membranes with diverse functions, from calcium storage to biomolecule synthesis. A primary component of the endomembrane system, the ER manufactures phospholipids critical for membrane function throughout the cell. Additionally, the two distinct regions of the ER specialize in the manufacture of specific lipids and proteins. The rough ER is characterized by the presence of microscopically-visible ribosomes on its surface. As a ribosome begins translation of an mRNA in the cytosol, the presence of a signal sequence directs the ribosome to the surface of the rough ER. A receptor in the membrane of the ER recognizes this sequence and facilitates the entry of the growing polypeptide into the ER lumen through a transmembrane protein complex. With the assistance of chaperones, nascent proteins fold and undergo other functional modifications, including glycosylation, disulfide bond formation, and oligomerization. Properly folded and modified proteins are then packaged into vesicles to be shipped to the Golgi apparatus and other locations in the cell. Chaperones identify improperly folded proteins and facilitate degradation in the cytosol by proteasomes. Lacking ribosomes, the smooth ER is the cellular location of lipid and steroid synthesis, cellular detoxification, ca

 Core: Cell Structure and Function

Stereotaxic Surgery for Implantation of Microelectrode Arrays in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

1Edmond and Lily Safra International Institute of Neuroscience, Santos Dumont Institute, 2Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 3Department of Physiological Sciences, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Espírito Santo

JoVE 60240

 Neuroscience

Analysis of Minerals Produced by hFOB 1.19 and Saos-2 Cells Using Transmission Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis

1Laboratory of Lipid Biochemistry, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2Université de Lyon, 3Université Lyon 1, 4L'insitut National des Sciences Appliquées (INSA) de Lyon, 5Ecole Supérieure de Chimie Physique Electronique (CPE) Lyon, 6Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR), L'institut de Chimie et Biochimie Moléculaires et Supramoléculaires (ICBMS)

JoVE 57423

 Chemistry

Performing Vaginal Lavage, Crystal Violet Staining, and Vaginal Cytological Evaluation for Mouse Estrous Cycle Staging Identification

1Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Neural Regeneration Laboratory and Ottawa Institute of Systems Biology, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, 3CIHR Program in Neurodegenerative Lipidomics, University of Ottawa, 4Carleton Immersive Media Studio, Azrieli School of Architecture and Urbanism

JoVE 4389

 Biology
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