1Department of Offshore, Process and Energy Engineering, Cranfield University, 2School of Applied Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Sheridan College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, 3School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 4Carbon Systems Engineering, Centre for Combustion, Carbon Capture and Storage, Cranfield University
Source: Laboratory of Dr. Neal Abrams — SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry
An ionic compound's solubility can be determined via qualitative analysis. Qualitative analysis is a branch of analytical chemistry that uses chemical properties and reactions to identify the cation or anion present in a chemical compound. While the chemical reactions rely on known solubility rules, those same rules can be determined by identifying the products that form. Qualitative analysis is not typically done in modern industrial chemistry labs, but it can be used easily in the field without the need of sophisticated instrumentation. Qualitative analysis also focuses on understanding ionic and net ionic reactions as well as organizing data into a flow chart to explain observations and make definitive conclusions.
Many cations have similar chemical properties, as do the anion counterparts. Correct identification requires careful separation and analysis to systematically identify the ions present in a solution. It is important to understand acid/base properties, ionic equilibria, redox reactions, and pH properties to identify ions successfully.
While there is a qualitative test for virtually every elemental and polyatomic ion, the identification process typically begi…
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, York University, 3Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta
1Marine Biogeochemistry, Code 6114, US Naval Research Laboratory, 2Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University
1Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, 2Department of Marine Biodiversity Research (BioDive), Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), 3Advanced Material Research Laboratory (AMRL), Clemson University, 4Swire Institute of Marine Sciences and School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong
Source: Laboratory of Dr. Terry Tritt — Clemson University
Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a method of thermodynamic analysis based on heat-flux method, wherein a sample material (enclosed in a pan) and an empty reference pan are subjected to identical temperature conditions. The energy difference that is required to maintain both the pans at the same temperature, owing to the difference in the heat capacities of the sample and the reference pan, is recorded as a function of temperature. This energy released or absorbed is a measure of the enthalpy change (ΔΗ) of the sample with respect to the reference pan.…
1Institute of Thermal Separation Processes, Hamburg University of Technology
1Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Department of Geology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 3Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Source: Laboratory of Dr. Ana J. García-Sáez — University of Tübingen
Most samples of interest are mixtures of many different components. Sample preparation, a key step in the analytical process, removes interferences that may affect the analysis. As such, developing separation techniques is an important endeavor not just in academia, but also in industry.
One way to separate mixtures is to use their solubility properties. In this short paper, we will deal with aqueous solutions. The solubility of a compound of interest depends on (1) ionic strength of solution, (2) pH, and (3) temperature. By manipulating with these three factors, a condition in which the compound is insoluble can be used to remove the compound of interest from the rest of the sample.1…
1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, 2Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan Medical School, 4Department of Surgery, Section of Plastic Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School
1Department of Chemistry, The University of Georgia
Source: Robert M. Rioux & Taslima A. Zaman, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
A mineral acid (or inorganic acid) is defined as a water-soluble acid derived from inorganic minerals by chemical reaction as opposed to organic acids (e.g. acetic acid, formic acid). Examples of mineral acids
• Boric acid (CAS No.10043-35-3)
• Chromic acid (CAS No.1333-82-0)
• Hydrochloric acid (CAS No.7647-01-0)
• Hydrofluoric acid (CAS No. 7664-39-3)
• Nitric acid (CAS No. 7697-37-2)
• Perchloric acid (CAS No. 7601-90-3)
• Phosphoric acid (CAS No.7664-38-2)
• Sulfuric acid (CAS No.7664-93-9)
Mineral acids are commonly found in research laboratories and their corrosive nature makes them a significant safety risk. Since they are important reagents in the research laboratory and often do not have substitutes, it is important that they are handled properly and with care. Some acids are even shock sensitive and under certain conditions may cause explosions (i.e., salts of perchloric acid).…
1Nanomedicine Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
1Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California
1Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 3Integrative Oceanography Division, Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 4Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
1Laboratoire de Bioingénierie et Biomécanique Ostéo-Articulaires (B2OA - UMR CNRS 7052), Université Paris Diderot, 2Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort, Université Paris-Est
1INM-Leibniz Institute for New Materials, 2Department of Physics, University of Saarland
Source: Laboratory of Jeff Salacup - University of Massachusetts Amherst
Throughout this series of videos, natural samples were extracted and purified in search of organic compounds, called biomarkers, that can relate information on climates and environments of the past. One of the samples analyzed was sediment. Sediments accumulate over geologic time in basins, depressions in the Earth into which sediment flows through the action of fluid (water or air), movement, and gravity. Two main types of basins exist, marine (oceans and seas) and lacustrine (lakes). As one might guess, very different types of life live in these settings, driven in large part by the difference in salinity between them. Over the last few decades, organic geochemists discovered a toolbox of biomarker proxies, or compounds that can be used to describe climate or environment, some of which work in marine environments and some of which work in lacustrine. We turn our attention here to the marine realm and alkenone paleothermometry using the Uk'37 sea surface temperature proxy.
The most well-established and widely applied open-ocean biomarker sea surface temperature (SST) proxy is Uk'37.
Uk'37 = (C37:2) / (C37:2 + C37:…
1l'Institut du Thorax, INSERM, CNRS, UNIV Nantes, 2CHU Nantes, Institut des Maladies de l'Appareil Digestif, INSERM U913, 3l'Institut du Thorax, INSERM, CNRS, UNIV Nantes, CHU Nantes, 4Service de Clinique Chirurgicale Digestive et Endocrinienne, CHU de Nantes
The chicken embryo (Gallus gallus domesticus) provides an economical and accessible model for developmental biology research. Chicks develop rapidly and are amenable to genetic and physiological manipulations, allowing researchers to investigate developmental pathways down to the cell and molecular levels.
This video review of chick development begins by describing the process of egg fertilization and formation within the chicken reproductive tract. Next, the most commonly used chick staging nomenclature, the Hamburger Hamilton staging series, is introduced. Major events in chick development are then outlined, including the dramatic cellular movements known as gastrulation that form the three major cell layers: The ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Cells from these layers go on to generate all the tissues within the organism, as well as extraembryonic membranes, which are necessary for the transport of gases, nutrients, and wastes within the eggshell. To conclude the discussion, some exciting techniques will be presented as strategies for studying chick development in greater detail.…
1Department of Surgery and Surgical Specialties, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico di Modena, 2Department of Clinical Microbiology, Universtity of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 3Sanypet S.p.a, 4AIRMO Center Milan