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Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.

Climate Change- Concept

JoVE 10609

The certainty of climate change remains a public controversy despite the consensus among approximately 97% of active climate researchers, who not only agree that the Earth’s climate is changing but also state that this change is intensified by human activity, predominantly carbon emissions 1. The disconnect between the public and the experts is partly due to poor understanding of the…

 Lab Bio

The Carbon Cycle

JoVE 10933

Carbon is the basis of all organic matter on Earth, and is recycled through the ecosystem in two primary processes: one in which carbon is exchanged among living organisms, and one in which carbon is cycled over long periods of time through fossilized organic remains, weathering of rocks, and volcanic activity. Human activities, including increased agricultural practices and the burning of fossil fuels, has greatly affected the balance of the natural carbon cycle. All living things are composed of organic molecules that contain atoms of the element carbon. Carbon exists in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide gas, which reacts with water to form bicarbonate. During photosynthesis, primary producers (or autotrophs) convert carbon dioxide and bicarbonate into organic carbon-containing compounds, such as glucose, to provide energy for growth, maintenance and other processes. Heterotrophs receive organic carbon for growth and maintenance by consuming autotrophs. Through the process of cellular respiration, these organic molecules are broken down to release the energy stored within them. The byproducts of this process are water and carbon dioxide, which is released into the atmosphere through respiration, continuing the cycle. Carbon can also return to the environment as animal waste or as decaying material from dead organisms. Decomposers, such as bact

 Core: Ecosystems

An Overview of Alkenone Biomarker Analysis for Paleothermometry

JoVE 10219

Source: Laboratory of Jeff Salacup - University of Massachusetts Amherst


Throughout this series of videos, natural samples were extracted and purified in search of organic compounds, called biomarkers, that can relate information on climates and environments of the past. One of the samples analyzed was sediment. Sediments accumulate…

 Earth Science

The Vestibular System

JoVE 10856

The vestibular system is a set of inner ear structures that provide a sense of balance and spatial orientation. This system is comprised of structures within the labyrinth of the inner ear, including the cochlea and two otolith organs—the utricle and saccule. The labyrinth also contains three semicircular canals—superior, posterior, and horizontal—that are oriented on different planes. All of these structures contain vestibular hair cells—the sensory receptors of the vestibular system. In the otolith organs, the hair cells sit beneath a gelatinous layer called the otolithic membrane, which contains otoconia—calcium carbonate crystals—making it relatively heavy. When the head is tilted, the otolithic membrane shifts, bending the stereocilia on the hair cells. In the semicircular canals, the cilia of the hair cells are contained within a gelatinous cupula, which is surrounded by endolymph fluid. When the head experiences movements, such as rotational acceleration and deceleration, the fluid moves, bending the cupula and the cilia within it. Similar to the auditory hair cells, displacement towards the tallest cilium causes mechanically-gated ion channels to open, depolarizing the cell and increasing neurotransmitter release. Displacement towards the shortest cilium hyperpolarizes the cell and decreases neurotr

 Core: Sensory Systems

Determining the Solubility Rules of Ionic Compounds

JoVE 10197

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Neal Abrams — SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry


An ionic compound's solubility can be determined via qualitative analysis. Qualitative analysis is a branch of analytical chemistry that uses chemical properties and reactions to identify the cation or anion present in a chemical compound.…

 General Chemistry

Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry to Measure Changes in Enthalpy

JoVE 5559

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Terry Tritt — Clemson University


Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a method of thermodynamic analysis based on heat-flux method, wherein a sample material (enclosed in a pan) and an empty reference pan are subjected to identical temperature conditions. The energy difference that is required to…

 General Chemistry

Separation of Mixtures via Precipitation

JoVE 5558

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Ana J. García-Sáez — University of Tübingen


Most samples of interest are mixtures of many different components. Sample preparation, a key step in the analytical process, removes interferences that may affect the analysis. As such, developing separation techniques is an important endeavor not…

 Organic Chemistry

Differential Scanning Calorimetry

JoVE 10487

Source: Danielle N. Beatty and Taylor D. Sparks, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT


Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is an important measurement to characterize thermal properties of materials. DSC is used primarily to calculate the amount of heat stored in a material as it…

 Materials Engineering

Safe Handling of Mineral Acids

JoVE 10370

Source: Robert M. Rioux & Taslima A. Zaman, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA


A mineral acid (or inorganic acid) is defined as a water-soluble acid derived from inorganic minerals by chemical reaction as opposed to organic acids (e.g. acetic acid, formic acid). Examples of mineral acids…

 Lab Safety

Tension Test of Fiber-Reinforced Polymeric Materials

JoVE 10417

Source: Roberto Leon, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA


Fiber-reinforced polymeric materials (FRP) are composite materials that are formed by longitudinal fibers embedded in a polymeric resin, thereby creating a polymer matrix with aligned fibers along…

 Structural Engineering

Development of the Chick

JoVE 5155

The chicken embryo (Gallus gallus domesticus) provides an economical and accessible model for developmental biology research. Chicks develop rapidly and are amenable to genetic and physiological manipulations, allowing researchers to investigate developmental pathways down to the cell and molecular levels.


This video review of chick development begins by describing the…

 Biology II

Serial Dilutions and Plating: Microbial Enumeration

JoVE 10507

Source: Jonathan F. Blaize1, Elizabeth Suter1, and Christopher P. Corbo1
1 Department of Biological Sciences, Wagner College, 1 Campus Road, Staten Island NY, 10301


Quantitative assessment of prokaryotes can be onerous given their abundance, propensity for exponential proliferation, species diversity within a population, and specific …

 Microbiology

Characterization of Calcification Events Using Live Optical and Electron Microscopy Techniques in a Marine Tubeworm

1Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, 2Department of Marine Biodiversity Research (BioDive), Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), 3Advanced Material Research Laboratory (AMRL), Clemson University, 4Swire Institute of Marine Sciences and School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong

JoVE 55164

 Biology

Measurement of Maximum Isometric Force Generated by Permeabilized Skeletal Muscle Fibers

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, 2Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan Medical School, 4Department of Surgery, Section of Plastic Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School

JoVE 52695

 Bioengineering

Preparation Of Gushukang (GSK) Granules for In Vivo and In Vitro Experiments

1Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Spine Institute, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 3Key Laboratory of Theory and Therapy of Muscles and Bones, Ministry of Education, 4School of Rehabilitation Science, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine

JoVE 59171

 Medicine

Simple and Effective Administration and Visualization of Microparticles in the Circulatory System of Small Fishes Using Kidney Injection

1Institute of Biology at Irkutsk State University, 2Institute of Biology at Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, 3Baikal Research Centre, 4Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR), 5University of Oulu, Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Laboratory

JoVE 57491

 Biology

Two-way Valorization of Blast Furnace Slag: Synthesis of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate and Zeolitic Heavy Metal Adsorbent

1Department of Offshore, Process and Energy Engineering, Cranfield University, 2School of Applied Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Sheridan College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, 3School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 4Carbon Systems Engineering, Centre for Combustion, Carbon Capture and Storage, Cranfield University

JoVE 55062

 Engineering

Techniques of Sleeve Gastrectomy and Modified Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Mice

1l'Institut du Thorax, INSERM, CNRS, UNIV Nantes, 2CHU Nantes, Institut des Maladies de l'Appareil Digestif, INSERM U913, 3l'Institut du Thorax, INSERM, CNRS, UNIV Nantes, CHU Nantes, 4Service de Clinique Chirurgicale Digestive et Endocrinienne, CHU de Nantes

JoVE 54905

 Medicine

Mammalian Cell Encapsulation in Alginate Beads Using a Simple Stirred Vessel

1Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 2Michael Smith Laboratories & Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 3Michael Smith Laboratories & Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia

JoVE 55280

 Bioengineering

A Protocol for Bioinspired Design: A Ground Sampler Based on Sea Urchin Jaws

1Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 3Integrative Oceanography Division, Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 4Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography

JoVE 53554

 Bioengineering
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