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Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.

Calcification of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Imaging of Aortic Calcification and Inflammation

1Anesthesia Center for Critical Care Research of the Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Cardiovascular Research Center and Cardiology Division of the Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 4Harvard Medical School, 5Department of Anesthesiology, Uniklinik RWTH Aachen, RWTH Aachen University, 6Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases and the Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology of the Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 54017


 Medicine

Determining the Solubility Rules of Ionic Compounds

JoVE 10197

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Neal Abrams — SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

An ionic compound's solubility can be determined via qualitative analysis. Qualitative analysis is a branch of analytical chemistry that uses chemical properties and reactions to identify the cation or anion present in a chemical compound. While the chemical reactions rely on known solubility rules, those same rules can be determined by identifying the products that form. Qualitative analysis is not typically done in modern industrial chemistry labs, but it can be used easily in the field without the need of sophisticated instrumentation. Qualitative analysis also focuses on understanding ionic and net ionic reactions as well as organizing data into a flow chart to explain observations and make definitive conclusions. Many cations have similar chemical properties, as do the anion counterparts. Correct identification requires careful separation and analysis to systematically identify the ions present in a solution. It is important to understand acid/base properties, ionic equilibria, redox reactions, and pH properties to identify ions successfully. While there is a qualitative test for virtually every elemental and polyatomic ion, the identification process typically begi


 Essentials of General Chemistry

Soil Nutrient Analysis: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium

JoVE 10077

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

In this experiment, three soil macronutrients are chemically extracted, combined with color-based reagents, then analyzed using color to determine the nutrient concentration present in the soil sample.

Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are the main components of soil fertilizer. These methods isolate each nutrient from the soil into a solution that can be analyzed using turbidity and color to determine the concentration of nutrients present in the soil sample. Knowing present concentration informs environmental scientists of a nutrient deficiency or surplus in soils used to support plant production, and also provides general insight into basic biogeochemical cycles of an ecosystem.


 Essentials of Environmental Science

Distinctive Capillary Action by Micro-channels in Bone-like Templates can Enhance Recruitment of Cells for Restoration of Large Bony Defect

1Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Columbia University, 2Endodontics, Columbia University, 3Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, South Korea, 4Orthodontics, The Ohio State University, 5Pathology, Weill Cornell Medical College

JoVE 52947


 Bioengineering

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Nutrients in Aquatic Ecosystems

JoVE 10023

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

Nitrogen and phosphorus are essential plant nutrients found in aquatic ecosystems and both are monitored as a part of water quality testing because in excess amounts they can cause significant water quality problems. 

Nitrogen in water is measured as the common form nitrate (NO3-) that is dissolved in water and readily absorbed by photosynthesizers such as algae. The common form of phosphorus measured is phosphate (PO43-), which is strongly attracted to sediment particles as well as dissolved in water. In excess amounts, both nutrients can cause an increase in aquatic plant growth (algal bloom, Figure 1) that can disrupt the light, temperature, and oxygen levels in the water below and lead to eutrophication and hypoxia (low dissolved oxygen in water) forming a “dead zone” of no biological activity. Sources of nitrates and phosphorus include wastewater treatment plants, runoff from fertilized lawns and agricultural lands, faulty septic systems, animal manure runoff, and industrial waste discharge. Figu


 Essentials of Environmental Science

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Two-way Valorization of Blast Furnace Slag: Synthesis of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate and Zeolitic Heavy Metal Adsorbent

1Department of Offshore, Process and Energy Engineering, Cranfield University, 2School of Applied Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Sheridan College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, 3School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 4Carbon Systems Engineering, Centre for Combustion, Carbon Capture and Storage, Cranfield University

JoVE 55062


 Engineering

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Real-time In Vivo Recording of Arabidopsis Calcium Signals During Insect Feeding Using a Fluorescent Biosensor

1Department of Metabolic Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, 2Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saitama University, 4Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (PRESTO), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 5Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park

JoVE 56142


 Biology

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Loading a Calcium Dye into Frog Nerve Endings Through the Nerve Stump: Calcium Transient Registration in the Frog Neuromuscular Junction

1Laboratory of Biophysics of Synaptic Processes, Kazan Scientific Centre, Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2Open Laboratory of Neuropharmacology, Kazan Federal University, 3Department of Radiophotonics and Microwave Technologies, A.N. Tupolev Kazan National Research Technical University, 4Department of Medical and Biological Physics, Kazan State Medical University

JoVE 55122


 Neuroscience

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Assessment of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Reserve and Intracellular Diastolic Calcium Removal in Isolated Ventricular Cardiomyocytes

1Department of Cardiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 2Experimental Research Center, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 3Department of Cardiology, The Third Hospital of Hangzhou City

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JoVE 55797


 JoVE In-Press

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Recording Temperature-induced Neuronal Activity through Monitoring Calcium Changes in the Olfactory Bulb of Xenopus laevis

1Institute of Neurophysiology and Cellular Biophysics, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 2Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 3DFG Excellence Cluster 171, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 4German Hearing Center Hannover

JoVE 54108


 Neuroscience

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Anatomically Inspired Three-dimensional Micro-tissue Engineered Neural Networks for Nervous System Reconstruction, Modulation, and Modeling

1Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, 2Center for Brain Injury & Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Center for Neurotrauma, Neurodegeneration & Restoration, Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4School of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University

JoVE 55609


 Neuroscience

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In Vivo Functional Brain Imaging Approach Based on Bioluminescent Calcium Indicator GFP-aequorin

1Equipe: Imagerie Cérébrale Fonctionnelle et Comportements (ICFC), Institut des Neurosciences Paris-Saclay (Nero-PSI), UMR-9197, CNRS/Université Paris Sud, 2Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Graduate College, University of Iowa, 3Department of Anesthesia, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa

JoVE 53705


 Neuroscience

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