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Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.

Calcium Imaging in Neurons

JoVE 5203

Calcium ions play an integral role in neuron function: They act as intracellular signals that can elicit responses such as altered gene expression and neurotransmitter release from synaptic vesicles. Within the cell, calcium concentration is highly dynamic due to the presence of pumps that selectively transport these ions in response to a variety of signals. Calcium…

 Neuroscience

Fertilization

JoVE 10907

During fertilization, an egg and sperm cell fuse to create a new diploid structure. In humans, the process occurs once the egg has been released from the ovary, and travels into the fallopian tubes. The process requires several key steps: 1) sperm present in the genital tract must locate the egg; 2) once there, sperm need to release enzymes to help them burrow through the protective zona pellucida of the egg; and 3) the membranes of a single sperm cell and egg must fuse, with the sperm releasing its contents—including its nucleus and centrosome—into the egg’s cytoplasm. If these steps are successful, the genetic material of the male and female gametes combine, and mitotic cell division commences, giving rise to a diploid embryo. The binding of the sperm and egg cell brings about various changes, among them the production of waves of calcium ions (Ca2+) pulsing through the egg cell. Such oscillations are initiated by sperm-egg fusion and result from both the release and uptake of endogenous Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum of an egg cell and the simultaneous discharge and intake of such ions from the egg’s extracellular environment. Importantly, calcium signaling modifies the egg by causing vesicles, called cortical granules, that lay directly below its plasma membrane to release their contents into the open space bene

 Core: Reproduction and Development

Fluorescence Biomembrane Force Probe: Concurrent Quantitation of Receptor-ligand Kinetics and Binding-induced Intracellular Signaling on a Single Cell

1Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 3Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, 4Institute of Biophysics, Laboratory of RNA Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 6School of Medicine and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University

JoVE 52975

 Bioengineering

Creating a Structurally Realistic Finite Element Geometric Model of a Cardiomyocyte to Study the Role of Cellular Architecture in Cardiomyocyte Systems Biology

1Cell Structure and Mechanobiology Group, University of Melbourne, 2Systems Biology Laboratory, Melbourne School of Engineering, University of Melbourne, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Melbourne, 4School of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Science, University of Melbourne, 5Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, 6Advanced Microscopy Facility, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, 7ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, University of Melbourne, 8School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, 9Living Systems Institute, University of Exeter

JoVE 56817

 Bioengineering

Imaging Ca2+ Dynamics in Cone Photoreceptor Axon Terminals of the Mouse Retina

1Institute for Ophthalmic Research, University of Tübingen, 2Graduate School of Cellular & Molecular Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, 3Bernstein Centre for Computational Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, 4Molecular Genetics Laboratory, University of Tübingen, 5Centre for Ophthalmology, University of Tübingen

JoVE 52588

 Neuroscience

Dissection of Local Ca2+ Signals in Cultured Cells by Membrane-targeted Ca2+ Indicators

1Japan Science and Technology Agency, PRESTO, 2Laboratory for Developmental Neurobiology, RIKEN Center for Brain Science, 3École Normale Supèrieure, Institut de Biologie de l'ENS (IBENS), Institut national de la santè et de la recherche mèdicale (INSERM), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), École Normale Supèrieure, PSL Research University

JoVE 59246

 Neuroscience

Anatomically Inspired Three-dimensional Micro-tissue Engineered Neural Networks for Nervous System Reconstruction, Modulation, and Modeling

1Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, 2Center for Brain Injury & Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Center for Neurotrauma, Neurodegeneration & Restoration, Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4School of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University

JoVE 55609

 Neuroscience

Measuring Intracellular Ca2+ Changes in Human Sperm using Four Techniques: Conventional Fluorometry, Stopped Flow Fluorometry, Flow Cytometry and Single Cell Imaging

1Departamento de Genética del Desarrollo y Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2Math and Sciences Department, Edison State College

JoVE 50344

 Biology

Imaging Ca2+ Responses During Shigella Infection of Epithelial Cells

1Equipe Communication Intercellulaire et Infections Microbiennes, Centre de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie (CIRB), Collège de France, 2Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (Inserm), U1050, 3Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UMR7241, 4MEMOLIFE Laboratory of Excellence and Paris Sciences et Lettres, 5Inserm, UMRS1174, Université Paris Sud

JoVE 57728

 Immunology and Infection

Long-term Live Imaging Device for Improved Experimental Manipulation of Zebrafish Larvae

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Morgridge Institute for Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Laboratory for Optical and Computational Instrumentation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 4Cellular and Molecular Pathology Graduate Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 5Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 6Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin-Madison

JoVE 56340

 Bioengineering

Flow Cytometry-based Drug Screening System for the Identification of Small Molecules That Promote Cellular Differentiation of Glioblastoma Stem Cells

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 2Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, 3Department of Neurological Surgery, University Hospital-Case Medical Center, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

JoVE 56176

 Cancer Research

Real-time In Vivo Recording of Arabidopsis Calcium Signals During Insect Feeding Using a Fluorescent Biosensor

1Department of Metabolic Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, 2Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saitama University, 4Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (PRESTO), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 5Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park

JoVE 56142

 Biology
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