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Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.

Calcium Imaging in Neurons

JoVE 5203

Calcium ions play an integral role in neuron function: They act as intracellular signals that can elicit responses such as altered gene expression and neurotransmitter release from synaptic vesicles. Within the cell, calcium concentration is highly dynamic due to the presence of pumps that selectively transport these ions in response to a variety of signals. Calcium…

 Neuroscience

Fertilization

JoVE 10907

During fertilization, an egg and sperm cell fuse to create a new diploid structure. In humans, the process occurs once the egg has been released from the ovary, and travels into the fallopian tubes. The process requires several key steps: 1) sperm present in the genital tract must locate the egg; 2) once there, sperm need to release enzymes to help them burrow through the protective zona pellucida of the egg; and 3) the membranes of a single sperm cell and egg must fuse, with the sperm releasing its contents—including its nucleus and centrosome—into the egg’s cytoplasm. If these steps are successful, the genetic material of the male and female gametes combine, and mitotic cell division commences, giving rise to a diploid embryo. The binding of the sperm and egg cell brings about various changes, among them the production of waves of calcium ions (Ca2+) pulsing through the egg cell. Such oscillations are initiated by sperm-egg fusion and result from both the release and uptake of endogenous Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum of an egg cell and the simultaneous discharge and intake of such ions from the egg’s extracellular environment. Importantly, calcium signaling modifies the egg by causing vesicles, called cortical granules, that lay directly below its plasma membrane to release their contents into the open space bene

 Core: Biology

Fluorescent Calcium Imaging and Subsequent In Situ Hybridization for Neuronal Precursor Characterization in Xenopus laevis

1Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, 2Department of Biology, College of William and Mary, 3Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, 4Department of Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology, 5Department of Computer Science, College of William and Mary

JoVE 60726

 Developmental Biology

Fluorescence Biomembrane Force Probe: Concurrent Quantitation of Receptor-ligand Kinetics and Binding-induced Intracellular Signaling on a Single Cell

1Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 3Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, 4Institute of Biophysics, Laboratory of RNA Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 6School of Medicine and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University

JoVE 52975

 Bioengineering

Creating a Structurally Realistic Finite Element Geometric Model of a Cardiomyocyte to Study the Role of Cellular Architecture in Cardiomyocyte Systems Biology

1Cell Structure and Mechanobiology Group, University of Melbourne, 2Systems Biology Laboratory, Melbourne School of Engineering, University of Melbourne, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Melbourne, 4School of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Science, University of Melbourne, 5Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, 6Advanced Microscopy Facility, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, 7ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, University of Melbourne, 8School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, 9Living Systems Institute, University of Exeter

JoVE 56817

 Bioengineering

Imaging Ca2+ Dynamics in Cone Photoreceptor Axon Terminals of the Mouse Retina

1Institute for Ophthalmic Research, University of Tübingen, 2Graduate School of Cellular & Molecular Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, 3Bernstein Centre for Computational Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, 4Molecular Genetics Laboratory, University of Tübingen, 5Centre for Ophthalmology, University of Tübingen

JoVE 52588

 Neuroscience

Dissection of Local Ca2+ Signals in Cultured Cells by Membrane-targeted Ca2+ Indicators

1Japan Science and Technology Agency, PRESTO, 2Laboratory for Developmental Neurobiology, RIKEN Center for Brain Science, 3École Normale Supèrieure, Institut de Biologie de l'ENS (IBENS), Institut national de la santè et de la recherche mèdicale (INSERM), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), École Normale Supèrieure, PSL Research University

JoVE 59246

 Neuroscience

Anatomically Inspired Three-dimensional Micro-tissue Engineered Neural Networks for Nervous System Reconstruction, Modulation, and Modeling

1Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, 2Center for Brain Injury & Repair, Department of Neurosurgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Center for Neurotrauma, Neurodegeneration & Restoration, Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 4School of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University

JoVE 55609

 Neuroscience

Measuring Intracellular Ca2+ Changes in Human Sperm using Four Techniques: Conventional Fluorometry, Stopped Flow Fluorometry, Flow Cytometry and Single Cell Imaging

1Departamento de Genética del Desarrollo y Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2Math and Sciences Department, Edison State College

JoVE 50344

 Biology

High Resolution Quantitative Synaptic Proteome Profiling of Mouse Brain Regions After Auditory Discrimination Learning

1Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology (LIN), 2Institute of Experimental Internal Medicine, Medical School, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, 3Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical School, Otto von Guericke University

JoVE 54992

 Neuroscience

Assessment of the Cytotoxic and Immunomodulatory Effects of Substances in Human Precision-cut Lung Slices

1Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), Member of REBIRTH Cluster of Excellence, 2Institute for Pathology, Hannover Medical School, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), 3Division of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Klinikum Region Hannover (KRH), 4Department of Cardiothoracic, Transplantation and Vascular Surgery (HTTG), Hannover Medical School, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), 5Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, RWTH Aachen University, 6Institute for Immunology, Hannover Medical School

JoVE 57042

 Immunology and Infection

Contractility Measurements of Human Uterine Smooth Muscle to Aid Drug Development

1Harris-Wellbeing Preterm Birth Research Centre, Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, 2School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, 3Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Biological Chemistry, University of Vienna, 4Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, 5Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna

JoVE 56639

 Medicine

Imaging Ca2+ Responses During Shigella Infection of Epithelial Cells

1Equipe Communication Intercellulaire et Infections Microbiennes, Centre de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie (CIRB), Collège de France, 2Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (Inserm), U1050, 3Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UMR7241, 4MEMOLIFE Laboratory of Excellence and Paris Sciences et Lettres, 5Inserm, UMRS1174, Université Paris Sud

JoVE 57728

 Immunology and Infection
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