1Jobst Vascular Research Laboratory, University of Michigan Medical School, 2Department of Engineering, Purdue University, 3Department of Surgery, Section of Vascular Surgery, University of Michigan Health System
1Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Fairfield University
1Department of Physics, University of Tennessee Space Institute
1Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Alberta, 2Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, 3Divisions of Critical Care and Cardiology, University of Alberta, 4Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, 5G.F. MacDonald Centre for Lung Health
1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 3Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
1Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 2Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University
1Biology and Soft Matter Division, Neutron Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 3Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, 4Jülich Center for Neutron Science, Forschungszentrum Jülich
1Marcoule Institute for Separative Chemistry, UMR 5257 CEA-CNRS-UM2-ENSCM
1Chemical and Biological Process Development, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), 2National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
1European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 2Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, 3Department of Chemical Physics, Sapienza - Università di Roma, 4CEA Saclay, 5TU Delft
1School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 3Institute for Advanced Study, 4Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, 5Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego
1Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Colorado School of Mines
1School of Science, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, 2BlueScope Steel Research, 3Infrared Microspectroscopy Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, 4School of Science, College of Science, Engineering and Health, RMIT University
1Institute of Manufacturing Technology and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology (TAIPEI TECH)
1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Syracuse University
1Department of Science, Mount St. Mary's University
Source: Laboratory of Dr. Neal Abrams — SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry
Transition metals are found everywhere from vitamin supplements to electroplating baths. Transition metals also make up the pigments in many paints and compose all minerals. Typically, transition metals are found in the cationic form since they readily oxidize, or lose electrons, and are surrounded by electron donors called ligands. These ligands do not form ionic or covalent bonds with the metal center, rather they take on a third type of bond known as coordinate-covalent. The coordinate-covalent bond between a ligand and a metal is dynamic, meaning that ligands are continuously exchanging and re-coordinating around the metal center. The identities of both the metal and the ligand dictates which ligands will bond preferentially over another. In addition, color and magnetic properties are also due to the types of complexes that are formed. The coordination compounds that form are analyzed using a variety of instruments and tools. This experiment explores why so many complexes are possible and uses a spectrochemical (color and chemical) method to help identify the type of coordination complex that forms.…
Source: Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University
Metal carbonyl complexes are used as metal precursors for the synthesis of organometallic complexes as well as catalysts. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is one of the most utilized and informative characterization methods of CO containing compounds. Group theory, or the use of mathematics to describe the symmetry of a molecule, provides a method to predict the number of IR active C-O vibrational modes within a molecule. Experimentally observing the number of C-O stretches in the IR is a direct method to establish the geometry and structure of the metal carbonyl complex.
In this video, we will synthesize the molybdenum carbonyl complex Mo(CO)4[P(OPh)3]2, which can exist in the cis- and trans-forms (Figure 1). We will use group theory and IR spectroscopy to determine which isomer is isolated.
Figure 1. The cis- and trans-isomers of Mo(CO)4[P(OPh)3]2.…
1National Security Directorate, Savannah River National Laboratory, 2Analytical Development Directorate, Savannah River National Laboratory
1Multi Organ Transplant Program, Department of Surgery, Toronto General Hospital, 2Division of Nephrology, The Hospital for Sick Children, 3Programa de Doctorat en Medicina, La Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, 4Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto General Hospital, 5Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, 6Departments of Surgery (Urology) & Physiology, Developmental & Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children
1The Ritchie Centre, Monash Institute of Medical Research, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash Medical Centre, 3Animal Resource Centre, Perth, Australia, 4Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine
1Experimental Molecular Biophysics, Freie Universität Berlin
1Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratory “Hypoxia & Lung” EA2363, University Paris 13, 2UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, UMR_S1158 Neurophysiologie Respiratoire Expérimentale et Clinique, Sorbonne Universités, 3Laboratory of Excellence GR-Ex, 4Laboratory MOVE (EA 6314), University of Poitiers
1Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University
1Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 3Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 4Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Immunology and Infection
1Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, 2Fachbereich Chemie, Philipps-Universität Marburg and Wissenschaftliches Zentrum für Materialwissenschaften
1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, 2Mitochondrial Evaluation Core, West Virginia University, 3Experimental Stroke Core, West Virginia University, 4Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research, West Virginia University
1Department of Cancer Biology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, 2Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, 3Sanofi US, 4Institute of Applied Cancer Science, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center
1Neurotrauma Research, Swedish Medical Center, 2Neurosurgery, Colorado Brain and Spine Institute
1Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Center for Systems Biology, University of Texas at Dallas
Source: Meghan Fashjian, ACNP-BC, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston MA
The vital signs are objective measurements of a patient's clinical status. There are five commonly accepted vital signs: blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation. In many practices, pain is considered the sixth vital sign and should regularly be documented in the same location as the other vital signs. However, the pain scale is a subjective measurement and, therefore, has a different value according to each individual patient.
The vital signs assessment includes estimation of heart rate, blood pressure (demonstrated in a separate video), respiratory rate, temperature, oxygen saturation, and the presence and severity of pain. The accepted ranges for vital signs are: heart rate (HR), 50-80 beats per minute (bpm); respiratory rate (RR), 14-20 bpm; oxygen saturation (SaO2), > 92%; and average oral temperature, ~98.6 °F (37 °C) (average rectal and tympanic temperatures are ~1° higher, and axillary temperature is ~1° lower compared to the average oral temperature).
Vital signs serve as the first clue that something may be amiss with a patient, especially if the patient is unable to communicate. Although there are…
Physical Examinations I
1Institute of Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 2Colloid Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces
1Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, 2Analytical Services Unit, School of Environmental Studies, Queen's University
Source: Vy M. Dong and Daniel Kim, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA
Nucleophilic substitution reactions are among the most fundamental topics covered in organic chemistry. A nucleophilic substitution reaction is one where a nucleophile (electron-rich Lewis base) replaces a leaving group from a carbon atom.
SN1 (S = Substitution, N = Nucleophilic, 1 = first-order kinetics)
SN2 (S = Substitution, N = Nucleophilic, 2 = second-order kinetics)
This video will help to visualize the subtle differences between an SN1 and SN2 reaction and what factors help to speed up each type of nucleophilic substitution reaction. The first section will focus on reactions that will help to better understand and learn about nucleophilic substitution reactions. The second section will focus on a real-world example of a substitution reaction.
Organic Chemistry II
1Department of Geography, University of Zurich, 2Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of South Carolina, 3Department of Earth Sciences, ETH Zurich, 4Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 5Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University