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Carbonic Acid: Carbonic acid (H2c03). The hypothetical acid of carbon dioxide and water. It exists only in the form of its salts (carbonates), acid salts (hydrogen carbonates), amines (carbamic acid), and acid chlorides (carbonyl chloride). (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Le Châtelier's Principle

JoVE 10138

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Lynne O'Connell — Boston College

When the conditions of a system at equilibrium are altered, the system responds in such a way as to maintain the equilibrium. In 1888, Henri-Lewis Le Châtelier described this phenomenon in a principle that states, "When a change in temperature, pressure, or concentration disturbs a system in chemical equilibrium, the change will be counteracted by an alteration in the equilibrium composition." This experiment demonstrates Le Châtelier's principle at work in a reversible reaction between iron(III) ion and thiocyanate ion, which produces iron(III) thiocyante ion: Fe3+(aq) + SCN- (aq) FeSCN2+ (aq) The concentration of one of the ions is altered either by directly adding a quantity of one ion to the solution or by selectively removing an ion from the solution through formation of an insoluble salt. Observations of color changes indicate whether the equilibrium has shifted to favor formation of the products or the reactants. In addition, the effect of a temperature change on the solution at equilibrium can be obs


 General Chemistry

Multi-analyte Biochip (MAB) Based on All-solid-state Ion-selective Electrodes (ASSISE) for Physiological Research

1Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Birck-Bindley Physiological Sensing Facility, Purdue University, 2NASA Ames Research Center, 3Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University Hazleton, 4Cooley LLP, 5NASA Life and Physical Sciences, Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters

JoVE 50020


 Bioengineering

Diagnostic Necropsy and Tissue Harvest

JoVE 10294

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Many animal experiments rely on final data collection time points that are gathered from the harvesting and testing of organs and tissues. The use of appropriate methods for the collection of organs and tissues can impact the quality of the samples and the analysis of the data that is gleaned for the testing of the tissues. The method of euthanasia of the animal can also impact the quality of the samples. This manuscript will outline proper necropsy techniques for rats.


 Lab Animal Research

Measurement of Maximum Isometric Force Generated by Permeabilized Skeletal Muscle Fibers

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, 2Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan Medical School, 4Department of Surgery, Section of Plastic Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School

JoVE 52695


 Bioengineering

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