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Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.

Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)

JoVE 5696

Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a phenomenon used to investigate close-range biochemical interactions. In FRET, a donor photoluminescent molecule can non-radiatively transfer energy to an acceptor molecule if their respective emission and absorbance spectra overlap. The amount of energy transferred—and consequently the overall emission of sample—depends on the proximity of an acceptor-donor pair of photoluminescent molecules. FRET analysis is combined with other biochemistry techniques to obtain detailed information of biomolecular structures and interactions from this “spectroscopic ruler.” This video covers the principles and concepts of FRET analysis. The procedure focuses on preparing samples for FRET and ways to present and interpret data. Finally, the applications include monitoring conformational and cellular processes by labeling parts of a cell or protein, monitoring enzyme reactions that alter protein structures, and using FRET to monitor aggregation of monomers expressed by cells. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer, or FRET, is a non-radiative transfer of energy between light-emitting molecules, and is often used to investigate close-range biochemical interactions. FRET only occurs when fluorescent molecules are spaced within 10 nm of each other. FRET analysis


 Biochemistry

Viscosity of Propylene Glycol Solutions

JoVE 10439

Source: Michael G. Benton and Kerry M. Dooley, Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA

Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow, and it is a useful parameter in the design of efficient product processing and quality control in a wide range of industries. A variety of viscometers are used to obtain the most accurate readings of experimental materials. The standard method of measuring viscosity is through a glass tube viscometer, which estimates viscosity by measuring the amount of time it takes fluid to flow through a capillary tube made of glass1. Rotational viscometers operate by applying shearing forces and measuring the time it takes a flowing1. These viscometers make use of the flowing force of the fluid, and they can use either a spring system or a digital encoder system1. Different measuring systems exist as well, with the standard being a cone and plate system, where fluid flows under the cone shape and over the plate, in order to minimize shear stress1. Parallel plate systems use two parallel plates and is ideal for measuring across temperature gradients, allowing a smooth transition1. Couette systems use a cup and


 Chemical Engineering

An Introduction to Caenorhabditis elegans

JoVE 5103

Caenorhabditis elegans is a microscopic, soil-dwelling roundworm that has been powerfully used as a model organism since the early 1970’s. It was initially proposed as a model for developmental biology because of its invariant body plan, ease of genetic manipulation and low cost of maintenance. Since then C. elegans has rapidly grown in popularity and is now utilized in numerous research endeavors, from studying the forces at work during locomotion to studies of neural circuitry. This video provides an overview of basic C. elegans biology, a timeline of the many milestones in its short but storied history, and finally a few exciting applications using C. elegans as a model organism.


 Biology I

Batch and Continuous Bioreactors

JoVE 5793

Bioreactors are used to grow organisms in large volumes, thereby enabling the production of mass quantities of the target product. These reactors can be batch reactors, which contain all of the components needed for cell growth, or continuous reactors, which have inlet and outlet ports allowing for the addition of fresh growth media and the removal of cell waste.

This video presents batch and continuous reactors, and demonstrates the use of bioreactors to grow bacteria in the laboratory. Finally, this video considers how these reactors are used in the bioengineering field to produce products such as protein therapeutics or even beer.


 Bioengineering

Quantitative Cell Biology of Neurodegeneration in Drosophila Through Unbiased Analysis of Fluorescently Tagged Proteins Using ImageJ

1Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology and Drug Evaluation (Yantai University), Ministry of Education, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Drug Delivery System and Biotech Drugs in Universities of Shandong, Yantai University

JoVE 58041


 Neuroscience

Novel Atomic Force Microscopy Based Biopanning for Isolation of Morphology Specific Reagents against TDP-43 Variants in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

1School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, 2Department of Neurology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3Department of Pathology, Georgetown University Medical Center

JoVE 52584


 Bioengineering

Identification of Homologous Recombination Events in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Using Southern Blotting and Polymerase Chain Reaction

1Department of Pathology, Georgetown University Medical School, 2Lab of Animal Models and Functional Genomics (LAMFG), The Key Laboratory of Animal Vaccine & Protein Engineering, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University (HUNAU), 3College of Food Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University (HUNAU), 4Lab of Molecular Cardiology (LMC), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)/National Institutes of Health (NIH), 5Transgenic Core, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)/National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58467


 JoVE In-Press

Protein Kinase C-delta Inhibitor Peptide Formulation Using Gold Nanoparticles

1Latner Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratories, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, 2Respiratory Medicine Research Laboratory, Institute of Translation Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 3Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58741


 JoVE In-Press

BtM, a Low-cost Open-source Datalogger to Estimate the Water Content of Nonvascular Cryptogams

1Real Jardín Botánico (CSIC-RJB), 2Grupo de Neurocomputación Biológica, Dpto. de Ingeniería Informática, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 3Department of Biogeography and Global Change, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC), 4Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (cE3c), Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, 5Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58700


 JoVE In-Press

Polyethyleneimine-coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles As a Vehicle for the Delivery of Small Interfering RNA to Macrophages In Vitro and In Vivo

1Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Developmental Genes & Human Diseases, Institute of Life Sciences, Southeast University, 2State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomaterials & Devices, School of Biological Science & Medical Engineering, Southeast University, 3Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Developmental Genes & Human Diseases, Medical School, Southeast University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58660


 JoVE In-Press

Structural Studies of Macromolecules in Solution Using Small Angle X-Ray Scattering

1Alberta RNA Research and Training Institute, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Lethbridge, 2Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, 3Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 4DiscoveryLab, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58538


 JoVE In-Press

Isolation of Extracellular Vesicles from Murine Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Using an Ultrafiltration Centrifugation Technique

1Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Women's Guild Lung Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Department of Medicine, Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58310


 JoVE In-Press

Fluorescent Silver Staining of Proteins in Polyacrylamide Gels

1Ming Wai Lau Centre for Reparative Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 2Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Institute of Molecular Functional Materials, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Division of Biomedical Engineering, and Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58669


 JoVE In-Press

Generation of Cationic Nanoliposomes for the Efficient Delivery of In Vitro Transcribed Messenger RNA

1Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Clinical Research Laboratory, University Medical Center, 2Atherothrombosis and Vascular Biology, Baker Heart & Diabetes Institute, 3Department of Medicine, Monash University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58444


 JoVE In-Press

Exploring the Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet on The Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma In Vivo

1Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Department, King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, 2College of Medicine, Experimental Surgery and Animal Laboratory, King Saud University

JoVE 57805


 Bioengineering

Cell-based Assay to Study Antibody-mediated Tau Clearance by Microglia

1Neuroscience Discovery, Janssen Pharmaceutical Company of Johnson & Johnson, Belgium, 2Department of Hematopoiesis, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, The Netherlands, 3Janssen Prevention Center, Janssen Pharmaceutical Company of Johnson & Johnson, The Netherlands, 4Neuroscience Discovery, Janssen Pharmaceutical Company of Johnson & Johnson, Pennsylvania

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58576


 JoVE In-Press

3-D Cell Culture System for Studying Invasion and Evaluating Therapeutics in Bladder Cancer

1Departments of Internal Medicine, Hematology/Oncology Division, Rogel Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical Center, 2Department of Urology, Division of GU Oncology, Rogel Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical Center, 3Departments of Surgery and Pathology, Perlmutter Cancer Center, NYU Langone Health

JoVE 58345


 Cancer Research

Synthesis of 68Ga Core-doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Dual Positron Emission Tomography /(T1)Magnetic Resonance Imaging

1Nanobiotechnology, Molecular Imaging and Metabolomics Lab, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), 2CIC biomaGUNE and CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES). Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 3Advanced Imaging Unit, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES)

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58269


 JoVE In-Press

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