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Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic Amp.

The Extracellular Matrix

JoVE 10695

In order to maintain tissue organization, many animal cells are surrounded by structural molecules that make up the extracellular matrix (ECM). Together, the molecules in the ECM maintain the structural integrity of tissue as well as the remarkable specific properties of certain tissues.

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is commonly composed of ground substance, a gel-like fluid, fibrous components, and many structurally and functionally diverse molecules. These molecules include polysaccharides called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs occupy most of the extracellular space and often take up a large volume relative to their mass. This results in a matrix that can withstand tremendous forces of compression. Most GAGs are linked to proteins—creating proteoglycans. These molecules retain sodium ions based on their positive charge and therefore attract water, which keeps the ECM hydrated. The ECM also contains rigid fibers such as collagens—the primary protein component of the ECM. Collagens are the most abundant proteins in animals, making up 25% of protein by mass. A large diversity of collagens with structural similarities provide tensile strength to many tissues. Notably, tissue like skin, blood vessels, and lungs need to be both strong and stretchy to perform their physiological role. A protein called elastin gives p

 Core: Cell Structure and Function

Bacterial Signaling

JoVE 10713

At times, a group of bacteria behaves like a community. To achieve this, they engage in quorum sensing, the perception of higher cell density that results in a shift in gene expression. Quorum sensing involves both extracellular and intracellular signaling. The signaling cascade starts with a molecule called an autoinducer (AI). Individual bacteria produce AIs that move out of the bacterial cell membrane into the extracellular space. AIs can move passively along a concentration gradient out of the cell, or be actively transported across the bacterial membrane. When cell density in the bacterial populations is low, the AIs diffuse away from the bacteria, keeping the environmental concentration of AIs low. As bacteria reproduce and continue to excrete AIs, the concentration of AIs increases, eventually reaching a threshold concentration. This threshold permits AIs to bind membrane receptors on the bacteria, triggering changes in gene expression across the whole bacterial community. Many bacteria are broadly classified as gram positive or gram negative. These terms refer to the color that the bacteria take on when treated with a series of staining solutions which were developed by Hans Christian Joachim Gram over a century ago. If bacteria pick up a purple color, they are gram-positive; if they look red, they are gram-negative. These stain colors are pic

 Core: Cell Signaling

Comparable Decellularization of Fetal and Adult Cardiac Tissue Explants as 3D-like Platforms for In Vitro Studies

1i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, 2INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, 3Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Universidade do Porto, 4Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, 5Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 6University of California San Francisco

JoVE 56924

 Bioengineering

Dendrimer-based Uneven Nanopatterns to Locally Control Surface Adhesiveness: A Method to Direct Chondrogenic Differentiation

1Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), 2Department of Engineering Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB), 3Networking Biomedical Research Center (CIBER), 4Instituto de Investigacin Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Department of Organic Chemistry, Universidad de Málaga (UMA), 5Andalusian Centre for Nanomedicine and Biotechnology-BIONAND, 6Unidad de Bioingeniería Tisular y Terapia Celular (GBTTC-CHUAC), Grupo de Reumatolog ía, Instituto de Investigación Biomèdica de A Coruña (INIBIC), Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña (CHUAC), Sergas, Universidade da Coruña (UDC), 7Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 8Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Department of Cell Biology, Genetics and Physiology, Universidad de Málaga (UMA)

JoVE 56347

 Bioengineering

Genetic Engineering of Dictyostelium discoideum Cells Based on Selection and Growth on Bacteria

1MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, 2Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, 3Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute Glasgow, 4MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, 5Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London

JoVE 58981

 Genetics

Primary Culture of Neurons Isolated from Embryonic Mouse Cerebellum

1Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, 2The Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba (CHRIM), Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, 3Department of Oral Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 4Department of Pathology, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60168

 JoVE In-Press

Measuring and Interpreting Oxygen Consumption Rates in Whole Fly Head Segments

1Munich Center of Integrated Protein Science and Biomedical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, 2Laboratory for Metabolism and Epigenetics in Aging, Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), 3German Mouse Clinic, Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, German Research Center for Environment and Health (GmbH), 4German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), 5Chair of Experimental Genetics, School of Life Science Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, 6Laboratory for Metabolism and Epigenetics in Brain Aging, Institute of Neuroregeneration & Neurorehabilitation of Qingdao University, 7Molecular Biology Division, Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich

JoVE 58601

 Biochemistry

Isolation of Extracellular Vesicles from Murine Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Using an Ultrafiltration Centrifugation Technique

1Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Women's Guild Lung Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Department of Medicine, Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

JoVE 58310

 Immunology and Infection

LDL Cholesterol Uptake Assay Using Live Cell Imaging Analysis with Cell Health Monitoring

1Interdisciplinary Stem Cell Institute, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, 3Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, 4Dr. John T. Macdonald Foundation Department of Human Genetics, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, 5John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, 6Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Endocrinology and the Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, 7Vascular Biology Institute, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, 8Peggy and Harold Katz Family Drug Discovery Center, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine

JoVE 58564

 Biology

Generation of Human 3D Lung Tissue Cultures (3D-LTCs) for Disease Modeling

1Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, 2German Center of Lung Research (DZL), 3Translational Lung Research and CPC-M bioArchive, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich DZL/CPC-M, 4Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lung Bioengineering and Regeneration, Lund University, 5Wallenberg Center for Molecular Medicine, Lund University, 6Stem Cell Centre, Lund University, 7Asklepios Fachkliniken Munich-Gauting, 8Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado

JoVE 58437

 Medicine
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