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Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including Adolescence.

Mutual Exclusivity: How Children Learn the Meanings of Words

JoVE 10132

Source: Laboratories of Nicholaus Noles and Judith Danovitch—University of Louisville

Humans are different from other animals in many ways, but perhaps the most important differentiating factor is their ability to use language. Other animals can communicate and even understand and use language in limited ways, but trying to teach human language to a chimp or a dog takes a great deal of time and effort. In contrast, young humans acquire their native language easily, and they learn linguistic rules without explicit instruction, which is an accomplishment that even the smartest animals cannot match.  One advantage young humans have over animals is that the human brain is especially adapted to learn new words. With only a few exposures, young children can learn new words and remember them. Perhaps more impressively, children can use what they already know to guide their future learning. For example, children treat objects as if they have only one label. So, if a child has learned the word hammer, they won’t assume an unfamiliar tool has the same name. This is the principle of mutual exclusivity.1-2 This video demonstrates children’s ability to use mutual exclusivity to match words to objects in their environment.


 Developmental Psychology

Measuring Children's Trust in Testimony

JoVE 10130

Source: Laboratories of Judith Danovitch and Nicholaus Noles—University of Louisville

How does a person learn about the world around them? One way is through direct observation and exploration. However, not every piece of information can be observed firsthand. Instead, a person must often rely on other people as information sources. This is particularly true for children who have so many questions about the world around them, yet have limited means of accessing the answers. Thus, children must rely on other people to provide answers to their questions. There is a popular viewpoint that children are gullible and that they believe everything they hear. However, recent research has shown this is not the case. Children as young as age 3 evaluate what other people say and show selective trust in other people’s testimony. Children pay attention to and use their knowledge about an individual’s prior behavior and characteristics to judge whether that individual is a trustworthy informational source.   This video demonstrates how to measure children’s trust in testimony based on methods developed by Birch, Vauthier, and Bloom1 and Koenig, Clement, and Harris.2 


 Developmental Psychology

How Children Solve Problems Using Causal Reasoning

JoVE 10110

Source: Laboratories of Judith Danovitch and Nicholaus Noles—University of Louisville

Imagine a young child hears an adult say, “I want to watch the news,” then watches the adult press a button on the remote control. A moment later, the television screen turns on. The next day, the child wants to turn on the television screen to watch cartoons. How does the child know what to do? Is it enough to say, “I want to watch cartoons,” or is pushing the button on the remote control necessary, too? Solving this problem requires children to use the information they observed (i.e., the adult’s behaviors) to come up with a solution. In their daily lives, children encounter many situations where they need to decode cause-and-effect from complex or ambiguous observations in order to accomplish a goal. In order to examine children’s capacity for causal reasoning, psychologists set up tasks using causal scenarios to observe how children draw conclusions and test new hypotheses about the relationships between different types of objects. In these tasks, children are shown interactions involving individual objects or sets of objects. Then, they are asked to identify and use the links between the causes and the effects to solve a problem.


 Developmental Psychology

A Convenient Method for Extraction and Analysis with High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography of Catecholamine Neurotransmitters and Their Metabolites

1School of Public Health of Southeast University, Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety Research Institute of Southeast University in Suzhou, 2Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), School of Biological Science & Medical Engineering, Southeast University, 3School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, 4British Columbia Academy, Nanjing Foreign Language School

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56445


 JoVE In-Press

A Modified Trier Social Stress Test for Vulnerable Mexican American Adolescents

1Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health (CERCH), Berkley School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, 2San Francisco (UCSF) School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, 3Human Development and Family Studies, Iowa State University

JoVE 55393


 Developmental Biology

Efficient Gene Delivery into Multiple CNS Territories Using In Utero Electroporation

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, 2Department of Medical Genetics, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary

JoVE 2957


 Neuroscience

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