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Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of Chromatin to crosslink the Dna-binding proteins to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific Antibodies. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by Pcr amplification and sequencing.

Chromatin Immunoprecipitation

JoVE 5551

Histones are proteins that help organize DNA in eukaryotic nuclei by serving as “scaffolds” around which DNA can be wrapped, forming a complex called “chromatin”. These proteins can be modified through the addition of chemical groups, and these changes affect gene expression. Researchers use a technique called chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to …

 Genetics

Chromatin Interaction Analysis with Paired-End Tag Sequencing (ChIA-PET) for Mapping Chromatin Interactions and Understanding Transcription Regulation

1Genome Institute of Singapore, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore, 2A*STAR-Duke-NUS Neuroscience Research Partnership, Singapore, 3Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore

JoVE 3770

 Biology

Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Protocol for Low-abundance Embryonic Samples

1Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne (CMMC), University of Cologne, 2Cologne Center for Genomics (CCG), University of Cologne, 3Cologne Excellence Cluster for Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), Research Center and Systems Biology of Ageing Cologne, University of Cologne

JoVE 56186

 Genetics

CRISPR-Mediated Reorganization of Chromatin Loop Structure

1Department of Dermatology, Program in Epithelial Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2Program in Cancer Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Canary Center for Cancer Early Detection, Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 4Department of Biology, Bridgewater State University, 5System Biosciences, 6Veterans Affairs Healthcare System

JoVE 57457

 Genetics

What is Gene Expression?

JoVE 10797

Gene expression is the process in which DNA (i.e., a gene) directs the synthesis of functional products, such as proteins. Cells can regulate gene expression at various stages. It allows organisms to generate different cell types and enables cells to adapt to internal and external factors.

A gene is a stretch of DNA that serves as the blueprint for functional RNAs and proteins. Since DNA is made up of nucleotides and proteins consist of amino acids, a mediator is required to convert the information that is encoded in DNA into proteins. This mediator is the messenger RNA (mRNA). mRNA copies the blueprint from DNA by a process called transcription. In eukaryotes, transcription takes place in the nucleus by complementary base-pairing with the DNA template. The mRNA is then processed and transported into the cytoplasm where it serves as a template for protein synthesis during translation. In prokaryotes, which lack a nucleus, the processes of transcription and translation occur at the same location and almost simultaneously since the newly-formed mRNA is susceptible to rapid degradation. Every cell of an organism contains the same DNA, and consequently the same set of genes. However, not all genes in a cell are “turned on” or use to synthesize proteins. A gene is said to be “expressed” when the protein it encodes is produced by the cel

 Core: Gene Expression

An Overview of Epigenetics

JoVE 5549

Since the early days of genetics research, scientists have noted certain heritable phenotypic differences that are not due to differences in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Current evidence suggests that these “epigenetic” phenomena might be controlled by a number of mechanisms, including the modification of DNA cytosine bases with methyl groups, the addition…

 Genetics

An Overview of Gene Expression

JoVE 5546

Gene expression is the complex process where a cell uses its genetic information to make functional products. This process is regulated at multiple stages, and any misregulation could lead to diseases such as cancer.

This video highlights important historical discoveries relating to gene expression, including the…

 Genetics

Gel Purification

JoVE 5063

Gel purification is used to recover DNA fragments after electrophoretic separation. DNA recovery from an agarose gel includes three basic steps: binding, washing and eluting from a silica column. DNA is believed to bind to silica in the presence of high salt via a salt bridge. Following binding, DNA is washed of impurities and eluted under low salt conditions disrupting this…

 Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

TChIP-Seq: Cell-Type-Specific Epigenome Profiling

1RNA Biology Laboratory, RIKEN, 2RNA Systems Biochemistry Laboratory, RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research, 3Laboratory for Phyloinformatics, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, 4RNA Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, 5Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo

JoVE 58298

 Biology

Hi-C: A Method to Study the Three-dimensional Architecture of Genomes.

1Program in Gene Function and Expression, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 2Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 3Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 4Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, 5Department of Applied Mathematics, Harvard University, 6Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 7Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, 8Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JoVE 1869

 Biology

Real-time Analysis of Transcription Factor Binding, Transcription, Translation, and Turnover to Display Global Events During Cellular Activation

1Institute for Diabetes and Obesity (IDO), German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Helmholtz Zentrum München, 2Institute for Informatics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 3Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Large Molecule Research, Roche Innovation Center Penzberg

JoVE 56752

 Genetics

Prediction and Validation of Gene Regulatory Elements Activated During Retinoic Acid Induced Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

1Sanford-Burnham-Prebys Medical Discovery Institute at Lake Nona, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, 3MTA-DE “Lendulet” Immunogenomics Research Group, University of Debrecen

JoVE 53978

 Developmental Biology

Laser Microirradiation to Study In Vivo Cellular Responses to Simple and Complex DNA Damage

1Department of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, 2Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, 3Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering and Surgery, University of California, Irvine

JoVE 56213

 Genetics

Promoter Capture Hi-C: High-resolution, Genome-wide Profiling of Promoter Interactions

1Nuclear Dynamics Programme, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, 2IJC Building, Campus ICO-Germans Trias i Pujol, Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute, 3Departamento de Genética Molecular, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 4Bioinformatics Group, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, 5Department of Biological Science, Florida State University

JoVE 57320

 Genetics

Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Based Developmental Toxicity Assays for Chemical Safety Screening and Systems Biology Data Generation

1Center of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Institute of Neurophysiology, University of Cologne, 2Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, 3Department of Statistics, Technical University of Dortmund, 4Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Technical University of Dortmund

JoVE 52333

 Developmental Biology

Screening for Functional Non-coding Genetic Variants Using Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and DNA-affinity Precipitation Assay (DAPA)

1Center for Autoimmune Genomics and Etiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, 2Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Cincinnati, 3Immunology Graduate Program, University of Cincinnati, 4Divisions of Biomedical Informatics and Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital

JoVE 54093

 Biology
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