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Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)

Determining Immune System Suppression versus CNS Protection for Pharmacological Interventions in Autoimmune Demyelination

1Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 3Department of Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 4Center for Glial Biology and Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham

JoVE 54348


 Immunology and Infection

Automated Measurement of Pulmonary Emphysema and Small Airway Remodeling in Cigarette Smoke-exposed Mice

1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital - Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Cambridge - Addenbrooke's Hospital, 3Lung Transplant Program, Brigham and Women's Hospital - Harvard Medical School, 4COPD and IPF Programs, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute

JoVE 52236


 Medicine

Analyzing Beneficial Effects of Nutritional Supplements on Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Functions During Experimental Colitis

1Department of Molecular Biomedicine, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, 2Department of Physiology, Biophysics and Neurosciences, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, 3Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute

JoVE 55095


 Medicine

Establishment of Larval Zebrafish as an Animal Model to Investigate Trypanosoma cruzi Motility In Vivo

1Laboratory of Neurosciences and Circadian Rhythms, School of Medicine, Universidad de los Andes, 2Biophysics Group, Department of Physics, Universidad de los Andes, 3Laboratory of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidad de los Andes, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, 5Notre Dame Initiative for Global Development, University of Notre Dame, 6USAID Research and Innovation Fellowship program

JoVE 56238


 Developmental Biology

A Technique for Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue Biopsy via a Non-diathermy Method

1FAME Laboratory, Department of Exercise Science, University of Thessaly, 2Institute of Sport, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, 3Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, 4School of Physical Education and Exercise Science, University of Thessaly

JoVE 55593


 Medicine

Slow-release Drug Delivery through Elvax 40W to the Rat Retina: Implications for the Treatment of Chronic Conditions

1Biotechnology and Applied Clinical Sciences Department, University of L'Aquila, 2ARC Centre of Excellence in Vision Science, 3John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, 4ANU Medical School, Australian National University

JoVE 51563


 Medicine

Murine Dermal Fibroblast Isolation by FACS

1Hagey Laboratory for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i

JoVE 53430


 Developmental Biology

Measuring Vital Signs

JoVE 10107

Source: Meghan Fashjian, ACNP-BC, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston MA

The vital signs are objective measurements of a patient's clinical status. There are five commonly accepted vital signs: blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation. In many practices, pain is considered the sixth vital sign and should regularly be documented in the same location as the other vital signs. However, the pain scale is a subjective measurement and, therefore, has a different value according to each individual patient. The vital signs assessment includes estimation of heart rate, blood pressure (demonstrated in a separate video), respiratory rate, temperature, oxygen saturation, and the presence and severity of pain. The accepted ranges for vital signs are: heart rate (HR), 50-80 beats per minute (bpm); respiratory rate (RR), 14-20 bpm; oxygen saturation (SaO2), > 92%; and average oral temperature, ~98.6 °F (37 °C) (average rectal and tympanic temperatures are ~1° higher, and axillary temperature is ~1° lower compared to the average oral temperature). Vital signs serve as the first clue that something may be amiss with a patient, especially if the patient is unable to communicate. Although there are


 Physical Examinations I

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