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Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.

Systematic Assessment of Well-Being in Mice for Procedures Using General Anesthesia

1Institute of Animal Welfare, Animal Behavior and Laboratory Animal Science, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, 2Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, 3German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), 4Unit of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Experimental Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine

JoVE 57046


 Behavior

Elevated Plus Maze Test Combined with Video Tracking Software to Investigate the Anxiolytic Effect of Exogenous Ketogenic Supplements

1Department of Psychology, Hyperbaric Neuroscience Research Laboratory, University of South Florida, 2Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, Metabolic Medicine Research Laboratory, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, 3Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, 5James A. Haley VA Medical Center, 6Shriners Hospital for Children, 7Savaria Department of Biology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58396


 JoVE In-Press

A Visual Description of the Dissection of the Cerebral Surface Vasculature and Associated Meninges and the Choroid Plexus from Rat Brain

1Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, 2Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, 3Office of Planning, Finance, and Information Technology, National Center for Toxicological Research

JoVE 4285


 Neuroscience

In Vivo Evaluation of Fracture Callus Development During Bone Healing in Mice Using an MRI-compatible Osteosynthesis Device for the Mouse Femur

1Institute of Orthopedic Research and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Ulm, 2RISystem, 3Core Facility Small Animal MRI, University Medical Center Ulm, 4Department of Traumatology, Hand-, Plastic-, and Reconstructive Surgery, University Medical Center Ulm

JoVE 56679


 Medicine

Zebrafish Maintenance and Husbandry

JoVE 5152

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a powerful vertebrate model system for studying development, modeling disease, and screening for novel therapeutics. Due to their small size, large numbers of zebrafish can be housed in the laboratory at low cost. Although zebrafish are relatively easy to maintain, special consideration must be given to both diet and water quality to in order to optimize fish health and reproductive success. This video will provide an overview of zebrafish husbandry and maintenance in the lab. After a brief review of the natural zebrafish habitat, techniques essential to recreating this environment in the lab will be discussed, including key elements of fish facility water recirculation systems and the preparation of brine shrimp as part of the zebrafish diet. Additionally, the presentation will include information on how specific zebrafish strains are tracked in a laboratory setting, with specific reference to the collection of tail fin samples for DNA extraction and genotyping. Finally, experimental modifications of the zebrafish environment will be discussed as a means to further our understanding of these fish, and in turn, ourselves.


 Biology II

Basic Mouse Care and Maintenance

JoVE 5158

Mice (Mus musculus) are small rodents that breed and sexually mature quickly, making them perfectly suited to generating large animal colonies for biological research. As compared to other mammalian species, mice are simple and inexpensive to maintain in the laboratory. Nevertheless, mouse colonies do have specific husbandry needs that are critical to preserving animal health and safety as well as experimental reproducibility. This video demonstrates standard practices that ensure mice are treated as humanely as possible within the laboratory animal facility, or vivarium. The discussion begins by reviewing a typical mouse housing setup, consisting of a plastic cage equipped with a layer of soft bedding and nesting material. The preformulated food pellets (also known as chow) that comprise the typical mouse diet are also introduced. In order to facilitate experiments performed on mice, safe animal handling practices are demonstrated, including common restraint techniques like “scruffing,” and the strategies used by researchers to keep track of individual mice within the facility. Finally, experimental manipulations of mouse housing and diet are discussed, in addition to one of the most common applications of the scruffing technique — performing injections.


 Biology II

Development and Reproduction of the Laboratory Mouse

JoVE 5159

Successful breeding of the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) is critical to the establishment and maintenance of a productive animal colony. Additionally, mouse embryos are frequently studied to answer questions about developmental processes. A wide variety of genetic tools now exist for regulating gene expression during mouse embryonic and postnatal development, which can help scientists to understand more about heritable diseases affecting human development. This video provides an introduction to the reproduction and development of mice. In addition to clarifying the terminology used to describe developmental progression, the presentation reviews key stages of the mouse life cycle. First, major development events that take place in utero are described, with special attention given to the unique layout of early rodent embryos. Next, husbandry protocols are provided for postnatal mice, or pups, including the process of weaning, or removal of pups from their mother's cage. Since males and females must be separated at this stage to prevent unscheduled mating, the demonstration also reveals how to determine mouse sex. Subsequently, instructions are given for carrying out controlled mouse breeding, including screening for the copulatory plug, which is useful for precisely timed embryonic development. Finally, the video highlights strategies used to in


 Biology II

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