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 JoVE Immunology and Infection

A New Method for Qualitative Multi-scale Analysis of Bacterial Biofilms on Filamentous Fungal Colonies Using Confocal and Electron Microscopy

1Interactions Arbres – Microorganismes, UMR1136, INRA Université de Lorraine, 2Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestières - PTEF, UMR 1137, INRA Université de Lorraine, 3Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory


JoVE 54771

 Science Education: Essentials of Environmental Microbiology

Community DNA Extraction from Bacterial Colonies

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Luisa Ikner

Traditional methods of analysis for microbial communities within soils have usually involved either cultural assays utilizing dilution and plating methodology on selective and differential media or direct count assays. Direct counts offer information about the total number of bacteria present, but give no information about the number or diversity of populations present within the community. Plate counts allow enumeration of total cultural or selected cultural populations, and hence provide information on the different populations present. However, since less than 1% of soil bacteria are readily culturable, cultural information offers only a piece of the picture. The actual fraction of the community that can be cultured depends on the medium chosen for cultural counts. Any single medium will select for the populations that are best suited to that particular medium. In recent years, the advantages of studying community DNA extracted from soil samples have become apparent. This nonculture-based approach is thought to be more representative of the actual community present than culture-based approaches. In addition to providing information about the types of populations present, this

 JoVE Developmental Biology

In Vitro Colony Assays for Characterizing Tri-potent Progenitor Cells Isolated from the Adult Murine Pancreas

1Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 2Irell & Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 3Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology


JoVE 54016

 JoVE Cancer Research

Establishment of Cancer Stem Cell Cultures from Human Conventional Osteosarcoma

1Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine (DCMT), University of Florence, 2Neurofarba Department, University of Florence, 3Department of Traumatology and General Orthopedics, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi


JoVE 53884

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Frozen Buffy Coats using Non-integrating Episomal Plasmids

1Center for Biomedicine, European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), 2Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Fondazione IRCCS Ca´ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 3Del E. Webb Center for Neuroscience, Aging & Stem Cell Research, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute


JoVE 52885

 JoVE Bioengineering

Techniques for the Evolution of Robust Pentose-fermenting Yeast for Bioconversion of Lignocellulose to Ethanol

1Bioenergy Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 2Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 3Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Great Lakes Bioenergy Center, Michigan State University


JoVE 54227

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Scalable High Throughput Selection From Phage-displayed Synthetic Antibody Libraries

1The Recombinant Antibody Network, 2The Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, 3Antibiome Center, University of California, San Francisco at Mission Bay, 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago


JoVE 51492

 Science Education: Essentials of Environmental Microbiology

Culturing and Enumerating Bacteria from Soil Samples

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Authors: Bradley Schmitz and Luisa Ikner

Surface soils are a heterogeneous mixture of inorganic and organic particles that combine together to form secondary aggregates. Within and between the aggregates are voids or pores that visually contain both air and water. These conditions create an ideal ecosystem for bacteria, so all soils contain vast populations of bacteria, usually over 1 million per gram of soil. Bacteria are the simplest of microorganisms, known as prokaryotes. Within this prokaryotic group, there are the filamentous microbes known as actinomycetes. Actinomycetes are actually bacteria, but they are frequently considered to be a unique group within the classification of bacteria because of their filamentous structure, which consists of multiple cells strung together to form hyphae. This experiment uses glycerol case media that select for actinomycete colonies, during dilution and plating. Typically, actinomycetes are approximately 10% of the total bacterial population. Bacteria and actinomycetes are found in every environment on Earth, but the abundance and diversity of these microbes in soil is unparalleled. These microbes are also essential for human life and affect what people eat

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Isolation of Murine Embryonic Hemogenic Endothelial Cells

1Departments of Medicine, Genetics and Biomedical Engineering, Yale Cardiovascular Research Center, Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Program, Yale Stem Cell Center, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine


JoVE 54150

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Generation of Integration-free Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Episomal Vectors

1State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Disease Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 2Division of Regenerative Medicine, Department of Medicine, Loma Linda University, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Loma Linda University, 4Center for Stem Cell Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 5Department of Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, 6Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 7Tianjin Key Laboratory of Blood Cell Therapy and Technology


JoVE 55091

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Large-Scale Production of Cardiomyocytes from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Using a Highly Reproducible Small Molecule-Based Differentiation Protocol

1Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, 2Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Division, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, 3St. Vincent´s Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, 4School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, 5Department of Developmental Biology, University of Science and Culture, 6Heart Centre for Children, The Children´s Hospital at Westmead, 7Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 8Department of Developmental Biology, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran


JoVE 54276

 Science Education: Essentials of Environmental Microbiology

Bacterial Growth Curve Analysis and its Environmental Applications

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Luisa Ikner

Bacteria are among the most abundant life forms on Earth. They are found in every ecosystem and are vital for everyday life. For example, bacteria affect what people eat, drink, and breathe, and there are actually more bacterial cells within a person’s body than mammalian cells. Because of the importance of bacteria, it is preferable to study particular species of bacteria in the laboratory. To do this, bacteria are grown under controlled conditions in pure culture, meaning that only one type of bacterium is under consideration. Bacteria grow quickly in pure culture, and cell numbers increase dramatically in a short period of time. By measuring the rate of cell population increase over time, a “growth curve” to be developed. This is important when aiming to utilize or inoculate known numbers of the bacterial isolate, for example to enhance plant growth, increase biodegradation of toxic organics, or produce antibiotics or other natural products at an industrial scale.

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