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October, 2006
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Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (Umdns, 1999)

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE 10091

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction; therefore, any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical; therefore, while performing the examination, the examiner should compare each side to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a

 Physical Examinations III

Emergency Eyewash and Shower Stations

JoVE 10373

Robert M. Rioux, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) mandates that an emergency eyewash and shower station be easily accessible in all workplaces in which a person could be exposed to injurious and/or corrosive substances. Emergency eyewash and shower stations should be used in the case of a laboratory or workplace accident that involves the spilling of a harmful, possibly corrosive chemical onto the body or the splashing of such a chemical into the eyes. Eyewash and shower stations are not, however, a replacement for proper protective equipment (PPE), including laboratory coats and protective eyewear, which should always be worn when handling hazardous chemicals. For proper selection of PPE, refer to your organization's Environmental Health & Safety (EHS) office.

 Lab Safety

Ultrahigh Resolution Mouse Optical Coherence Tomography to Aid Intraocular Injection in Retinal Gene Therapy Research

1Research Service, VA Western New York Healthcare System, 2Department of Ophthalmology, (Ross Eye Institute), Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 3Pharmacology/Toxicology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 4Physiology/Biophysics, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 5Neuroscience Program, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 6The RNA Institute, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 7The SUNY Eye Institute

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JoVE 55894

 JoVE In-Press

Guidelines in Case of an Laboratory Emergency

JoVE 10379

Robert M. Rioux & Zhifeng Chen, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

The most common laboratory emergencies include chemical spills, fire or explosion, electric shock, and personnel injuries. Most laboratory accidents occur due to poor planning or lack of attention. Therefore, it's always better to prevent accidents (being proactive) than having to take any actions during an emergency (being reactive). For example, always wear proper personal protective equipment (PPE) in the laboratory. Regular laboratory inspection and equipment maintenance is beneficial to prevent laboratory accidents. However, once the emergency occurs, it's also essential to know what to do. Ensure your personal safety first and then call local emergency responders, when and if necessary. The extent of your response will depend on the seriousness of the incident and documented laboratory protocols for dealing with such incidents. Stay calm and take proper actions according to the type and level of emergency.

 Lab Safety

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