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Control Groups: Groups that serve as a standard for comparison in experimental studies. They are similar in relevant characteristics to the experimental group but do not receive the experimental intervention.

The Multi-group Experiment

JoVE 10057

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University



A multi-group design is an experimental design that has 3 or more conditions/groups of the same independent variable. This video demonstrates a multi-group experiment that examines how different…

 Experimental Psychology

The Scientific Method

JoVE 10649

The scientific method is a detailed, empirical, problem-solving process leveraged by biologists and scientists of other disciplines. This iterative approach involves formulating a question based on observation, developing a testable potential explanation for the observation (called a hypothesis), making and testing predictions based on the hypothesis, and using the findings to create new hypotheses and predictions. Generally, predictions are tested using carefully-designed experiments. Based on the outcome of these experiments, the original explanation may need to be refined, and new hypotheses and questions can be generated. Importantly, this illustrates that the scientific method is not a stepwise recipe. Instead, it is a continuous refinement and testing of ideas based on new observations, which is the crux of scientific inquiry. Science is mutable and continuously changes as we learn more about the world around us. For this reason, scientists avoid claiming to ‘prove’ a specific idea. Instead, they gather evidence that either supports or refutes a given hypothesis. A hypothesis is preceded by an initial observation, during which information is gathered by the senses (e.g., vision, hearing) or using scientific tools and instruments. This observation leads to a question that prompts the formation of an initial hypothesis, a (tes

 Core: Scientific Inquiry

Population Growth - Student Protocol

JoVE 10606

Exponential Population Growth Model
NOTE: In these experiments you will use computer software to simulate different types of growth models. HYPOTHESES: The experimental hypothesis might be that if we increase either R, the reproductive rate or the initial population size, NT, that this will increase the population size after 10 generations in an…

 Lab Bio

The Simple Experiment: Two-group Design

JoVE 10056

Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University



A two-group design is the simplest way to establish a cause-effect relationship between two variables. This video demonstrates a simple experiment (two-group design).  In providing an overview of…

 Experimental Psychology

Visualizing Angiogenesis by Multiphoton Microscopy In Vivo in Genetically Modified 3D-PLGA/nHAp Scaffold for Calvarial Critical Bone Defect Repair

1Center for Translational Medicine Research and Development, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maastricht UMC+, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Hospital RWTH, 4Research Laboratory for Biomedical Optics and Molecular Imaging, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

JoVE 55381

 Bioengineering

Conscious and Non-conscious Representations of Emotional Faces in Asperger's Syndrome

1Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, 2Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, 3Department of Psychology, Fo Guang University, 4Department of Electrical Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, 5State Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, 6Novosibirsk State University, 7Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University

JoVE 53962

 Behavior

The Neuromuscular Junction: Measuring Synapse Size, Fragmentation and Changes in Synaptic Protein Density Using Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy

1Physiology and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, 2Motor Neuron Disease Research Group, Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University, 3Advanced Microscopy Facility, Bosch Institute, University of Sydney

JoVE 52220

 Neuroscience

Isolation of Murine Embryonic Hemogenic Endothelial Cells

1Departments of Medicine, Genetics and Biomedical Engineering, Yale Cardiovascular Research Center, Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Program, Yale Stem Cell Center, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine

JoVE 54150

 Developmental Biology

Elevated Plus Maze Test Combined with Video Tracking Software to Investigate the Anxiolytic Effect of Exogenous Ketogenic Supplements

1Department of Psychology, Hyperbaric Neuroscience Research Laboratory, University of South Florida, 2Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, Metabolic Medicine Research Laboratory, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, 3Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, 5James A. Haley VA Medical Center, 6Shriners Hospital for Children, 7Savaria Department of Biology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University

JoVE 58396

 Behavior

Ultrahigh Resolution Mouse Optical Coherence Tomography to Aid Intraocular Injection in Retinal Gene Therapy Research

1Research Service, VA Western New York Healthcare System, 2Department of Ophthalmology, (Ross Eye Institute), Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 3Pharmacology/Toxicology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 4Physiology/Biophysics, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 5Neuroscience Program, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 6The RNA Institute, University at Buffalo- SUNY, 7The SUNY Eye Institute

JoVE 55894

 Medicine

Probiotic Studies in Neonatal Mice Using Gavage

1Department of Experimental Medicine, University of British Columbia, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, 3Department of Epidemiology and Pediatrics, University of Nebraska Medical Centre, 4Animal Care Services, University of British Columbia

JoVE 59074

 Immunology and Infection

Protocols for Investigating the Host-tissue Distribution, Transmission-mode, and Effect on the Host Fitness of a Densovirus in the Cotton Bollworm

1State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 3Crop and Environment Sciences, Harper Adams University

JoVE 55534

 Immunology and Infection

Quantification of Proliferative and Dead Cells in Enteroids

1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuropsychiatric Diseases and Cambridge-Suda (CAM-SU) Genomic Resource Center, Medical College of Soochow University, Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 2Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, 3Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School

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JoVE 60501

 JoVE In-Press
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