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Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Preparation, Imaging, and Quantification of Bacterial Surface Motility Assays

1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 2Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, 3Department of Applied and Computational Mathematics and Statistics, University of Notre Dame, 4INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 5Department of Biology, Indiana University, 6Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame

JoVE 52338


 Biology

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Optimized Protocol for the Extraction of Proteins from the Human Mitral Valve

1Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 2Cardiovascular Tissue Bank of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 3Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Cardiovascular Section, University of Milan, 4Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Development and Innovation Cardiac Surgery Unit, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS

JoVE 55762


 Biochemistry

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Cyclic Voltammetry (CV)

JoVE 5502

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Kayla Green — Texas Christian University

A Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) experiment involves the scan of a range of potential voltages while measuring current. In the CV experiment, the potential of an immersed, stationary electrode is scanned from a predetermined starting potential to a final value (called the switching potential) and then the reverse scan is obtained. This gives a 'cyclic' sweep of potentials and the current vs. potential curve derived from the data is called a cyclic voltammogram. The first sweep is called the 'forward scan' and the return wave is called the 'reverse scan'. The potential extremes are termed the 'scan window'. The magnitude of reduction and oxidation currents and the shape of the voltammograms are highly dependent on analyte concentration, scan rates, and experimental conditions. By varying these factors, cyclic voltammetry can yield information regarding the stability of transition metal oxidation state in the complexed form, reversibility of electron transfer reactions, and information regarding reactivity. This video will explain the basic setup for a cyclic voltammetry experiment including analyte preparation and setting up the electrochemical cell. A simple cyclic voltammetry experiment will be presented.


 Analytical Chemistry

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Modeling Fast-scan Cyclic Voltammetry Data from Electrically Stimulated Dopamine Neurotransmission Data Using QNsim1.0

1Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, 2Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, 3Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, University of Pittsburgh, 4Department of Biological Sciences, Mellon College of Science, Carnegie Mellon University

JoVE 55595


 Neuroscience

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Method for Identifying Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Protein-protein Interaction Between HCN1 and TRIP8b

1Davee Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurosciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 2Center for Molecular Innovation and Drug Discovery, Northwestern University, 3Department of Pharmacology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 4High Throughput Analysis Laboratory, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, 5Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University

JoVE 54540


 Biochemistry

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A Method for Systematic Electrochemical and Electrophysiological Evaluation of Neural Recording Electrodes

1School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, 2Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, 3ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, 4Health Innovations Research Institute, College of Science, Engineering, and Health, RMIT University

JoVE 51084


 Neuroscience

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Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Culture and Delivery in Autologous Conditions: A Smart Approach for Orthopedic Applications

1Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 2OtoLab, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana (AOUP), 3Dept. of Civil and Industrial Engineering, University of Pisa, 4Immunohematology Operative Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana (AOUP), 5Dept. Of Surgical, Medical, Molecular Pathology and Emergency Medicine, University of Pisa, 6II Orthopedic and Traumatologic Clinic, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana (AOUP)

JoVE 54845


 Bioengineering

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Examination of Rapid Dopamine Dynamics with Fast Scan Cyclic Voltammetry During Intra-oral Tastant Administration in Awake Rats

1Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University, 2Department of Biotechnical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, 3Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, 4Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale School of Medicine

JoVE 52468


 Behavior

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Removal of Branched and Cyclic Compounds by Urea Adduction for Uk'37 Paleothermometry

JoVE 10160

Source: Laboratory of Jeff Salacup - University of Massachusetts Amherst

As mentioned in previous videos, the product of an organic solvent extraction, a total lipid extract (TLE), is often a complex mixture of hundreds, if not thousands, of different compounds. The researcher is often only interested in a handful of compounds. In the case of our two organic paleothermometers (Uk'37 and MBT/CBT), the interest is in only 6 compounds (2 alkenones and 4 isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers). As discussed in the previous two videos in this series, purification techniques may be applied in order to pare down the number of compounds in an analyzed sample. These techniques may chemically alter the unwanted components (saponification), take advantage of the different compound chemistries (column chromatography), or use the different shapes and sizes of the molecules to include or exclude certain components from the analysis (urea adduction). The atomic structure of different chemicals leads some organic compounds to form long, narrow, straight chains (n-alkanes and alkenones), other organic compounds to form complex cyclic structures, others to form highly-branched structures, and yet others which form both cyclic and branched structures (GDGTs) (Figure 1). The different


 Earth Science

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Multi-analyte Biochip (MAB) Based on All-solid-state Ion-selective Electrodes (ASSISE) for Physiological Research

1Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Birck-Bindley Physiological Sensing Facility, Purdue University, 2NASA Ames Research Center, 3Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University Hazleton, 4Cooley LLP, 5NASA Life and Physical Sciences, Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters

JoVE 50020


 Bioengineering

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Environmentally-controlled Microtensile Testing of Mechanically-adaptive Polymer Nanocomposites for ex vivo Characterization

1Advanced Platform Technology Center, Rehabilitation Research and Development, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University

JoVE 50078


 Bioengineering

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Co-culture of Living Microbiome with Microengineered Human Intestinal Villi in a Gut-on-a-Chip Microfluidic Device

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 2Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University, 3Vascular Biology Program, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University

JoVE 54344


 Bioengineering

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Identifying DNA Mutations in Purified Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells

1Greehey Children's Cancer Research Institute, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 2Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 3Department of Pathology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 4Department of Microbiology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 5Cancer Therapy and Research Center, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio

JoVE 50752


 Immunology and Infection

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