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Diabetic Foot: Common foot problems in persons with Diabetes mellitus, caused by any combination of factors such as Diabetic neuropathies; Peripheral vascular diseases; and Infection. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, Gangrene and Amputation.

Creation and Transplantation of an Adipose-derived Stem Cell (ASC) Sheet in a Diabetic Wound-healing Model

1Diabetic Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University School of Medicine, 2The Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 3The Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Tokyo Women's Medical University School of Medicine

JoVE 54539


 Medicine

Sensory Exam

JoVE 10113

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

A complete sensory examination consists of testing primary sensory modalities as well as cortical sensory function. Primary sensory modalities include pain, temperature, light touch, vibration, and joint position sense. Sensation of the face is discussed in the videos Cranial Nerves Exam I and II, as are the special senses of smell, vision, taste, and hearing. The spinothalamic tract mediates pain and temperature information from skin to thalamus. The spinothalamic fibers decussate (cross over) 1-2 spinal nerve segments above the point of entry, then travel up to the brainstem until they synapse on various nuclei in thalamus. From the thalamus, information is then relayed to the cortical areas such as the postcentral gyrus (also known as the primary somatosensory cortex). Afferent fibers transmitting vibration and proprioception travel up to medulla in the ipsilateral posterior columns as fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus, which carry information from the lower limbs and upper limbs, respectively. Subsequently, the afferent projections cross over and ascend to the thalamus, and from there to the primary somatosensory cortex. The pattern of a


 Physical Examinations III

Transplantation into the Anterior Chamber of the Eye for Longitudinal, Non-invasive In vivo Imaging with Single-cell Resolution in Real-time

1Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 4Department of Physiology & Biophysics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 5The Rolf Luft Research Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Karolinska Institutet

JoVE 50466


 Medicine

Peripheral Vascular Exam Using a Continuous Wave Doppler

JoVE 10123

Source: Joseph Donroe, MD, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a common condition affecting older adults and includes disease of the peripheral arteries and veins. While the history and physical exam offer clues to its diagnosis, Doppler ultrasound has become a routine part of the bedside vascular examination. The video titled "The Peripheral Vascular Exam" gave a detailed review of the physical examination of the peripheral arterial and venous systems. This video specifically reviews the bedside assessment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and chronic venous insufficiency using a handheld continuous wave Doppler. The handheld Doppler (HHD) is a simple instrument that utilizes continuous transmission and reception of ultrasound (also referred to as continuous wave Doppler) to detect changes in blood velocity as it courses through a vessel. The Doppler probe contains a transmitting element that emits ultrasound and a receiving element that detects ultrasound waves (Figure 1). The emitted ultrasound is reflected off of moving blood and back to the probe at a frequency directly related to the velocity of blood flow. The reflected signal is detected and transduced to an audible sound with a frequen


 Physical Examinations I

Novel Diagnostics in Revision Arthroplasty: Implant Sonication and Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

1Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, 2Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Bonn, 3Division of EU cooperation/Microbiology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institute

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55147


 JoVE In-Press

Renal Capsule Xenografting and Subcutaneous Pellet Implantation for the Evaluation of Prostate Carcinogenesis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

1Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Medical Scientist (MD/PhD) Training Program, University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry, 3Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison

JoVE 50574


 Medicine

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Studying Diabetes Through the Eyes of a Fish: Microdissection, Visualization, and Analysis of the Adult tg(fli:EGFP) Zebrafish Retinal Vasculature

1Department of Vascular Biology and Tumorangiogenesis, Center for Biomedicine and Medical Technology Mannheim (CBTM), Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, 2V. Medical Clinic, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56674


 JoVE In-Press

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Experimental and Imaging Techniques for Examining Fibrin Clot Structures in Normal and Diseased States

1Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology & Emory University School of Medicine, 2Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering & Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, 3George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology

JoVE 52019


 Medicine

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Using Retinal Imaging to Study Dementia

1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Therese Pei Fong Chow Research Centre for Prevention of Dementia, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4Gerald Choa Neuroscience Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5Memory Aging and Cognition Centre, National University Health System, 6Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, 7Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 8Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56137


 JoVE In-Press

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Motor Exam II

JoVE 10095

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

There are two main types of reflexes that are tested on a neurological examination: stretch (or deep tendon reflexes) and superficial reflexes. A deep tendon reflex (DTR) results from the stimulation of a stretch-sensitive afferent from a neuromuscular spindle, which, via a single synapse, stimulates a motor nerve leading to a muscle contraction. DTRs are increased in chronic upper motor neuron lesions (lesions of the pyramidal tract) and decreased in lower motor neuron lesions and nerve and muscle disorders. There is a wide variation of responses and reflexes graded from 0 to 4+ (Table 1). DTRs are commonly tested to help localize neurologic disorders. A common method of recording findings during the DTR examination is using a stick figure diagram. The DTR test can help distinguish upper and lower motor neuron problems, and can assist in localizing nerve root compression as well. Although the DTR of nearly any skeletal muscle could be tested, the reflexes that are routinely tested are: brachioradialis, biceps, triceps, patellar, and Achilles (Table 2). Superficial reflexes are segmental ref


 Physical Examinations III

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Fluorescent Dye Labeling of Erythrocytes and Leukocytes for Studying the Flow Dynamics in Mouse Retinal Circulation

1National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 2Singapore Eye Research Institute (SERI), Singapore National Eye Center, 3School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health Systems, National University of Singapore, 5Ophthalmology Academic Clinical Research Program, DUKE-NUS Graduate Medical School

JoVE 55495


 Medicine

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Using Gold-standard Gait Analysis Methods to Assess Experience Effects on Lower-limb Mechanics During Moderate High-heeled Jogging and Running

1Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, 2Research Academy of Grand Health Interdisciplinary, Ningbo University, 3Department of Automation, Biomechanics and Mechatronics, The Lodz University of Technology, 4Savaria Institute of Technology, Eötvös Loránd University

JoVE 55714


 Behavior

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Motor Maps

JoVE 10175

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

One principle of brain organization is the topographic mapping of information. Especially in sensory and motor cortices, adjacent regions of the brain tend to represent information from adjacent parts of the body, resulting in maps of the body expressed on the surface of the brain. The primary sensory and motor maps in the brain surround a prominent sulcus known as the central sulcus. The cortex anterior to the central sulcus is known as the precentral gyrus and contains the primary motor cortex, while the cortex posterior to the central sulcus is known as the postcentral gyrus and contains the primary sensory cortex (Figure 1). Figure 1: Sensory and motor maps around the central sulcus. The primary motor cortex, which contains a motor map of the body's effectors, is anterior to the central sulcus, in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe. The primary somesthetic (sensory) cortex, which receives touch, pain, and temperature information from the external parts of the body, is located posterior to the central sulcus, in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe.

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Foot Exam

JoVE 10192

Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA

The foot is a complex structure composed of numerous bones and articulations. It provides flexibility, is the essential contact point needed for ambulation, and is uniquely suited to absorb shock. Because the foot must support the weight of the entire body, it is prone to injury and pain. When examining the foot, it is important to remove shoes and socks on both sides, so that the entire foot can be inspected and compared. It is important to closely compare the injured or painful foot to the uninvolved side. The essential parts of the evaluation of the foot include inspection, palpation (which should include vascular assessment), testing of the range of motion (ROM) and strength, and the neurological evaluation.


 Physical Examinations III

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