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DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-Adenosylmethionine as the methyl group donor.

DNA Methylation Analysis

JoVE 5550

Methylation at CpG dinucleotides is a chemical modification of DNA hypothesized to play important roles in regulating gene expression. In particular, the methylation of clusters of methylation sites, called “CpG islands”, near promoters and other gene regulatory elements may contribute to the stable silencing of genes, for example, during epigenetic processes…

 Genetics

Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing for Assessment of DNA Methylation at Base Pair Resolution

1Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 2Institute for Computational Biomedicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 3Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College, 4Department of Pathology, University of Michigan

JoVE 52246

 Biology

Epigenetic Regulation

JoVE 10803

Epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role in healthy development. Conversely, precisely regulated epigenetic mechanisms are disrupted in diseases like cancer.

In most mammals, females have two X chromosomes (XX) while males have an X and a Y chromosome (XY). The X chromosome contains significantly more genes than the Y chromosome. Therefore, to prevent an excess of X chromosome-linked gene expression in females, one of the two X chromosomes is randomly silenced during early development. This process, called X-chromosome inactivation, is regulated by DNA methylation. Scientists have found greater DNA methylation at gene promoter sites on the inactive X chromosome than its active counterpart. DNA methylation prevents the transcription machinery from attaching to the promoter region, thus inhibiting gene transcription. Abnormal DNA methylation plays an important role in cancer. The promoter region of most genes contains stretches of cytosine and guanine nucleotides linked by a phosphate group. These regions are called CpG islands. In healthy cells, CpG islands are not methylated. However, in cancer cells, CpG islands in the promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes or cell cycle regulators are excessively methylated. Methylation turns off the expression of these genes, allowing cancer cells to divide rapidly and uncontrollably.

 Core: Biology

An Overview of Epigenetics

JoVE 5549

Since the early days of genetics research, scientists have noted certain heritable phenotypic differences that are not due to differences in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Current evidence suggests that these “epigenetic” phenomena might be controlled by a number of mechanisms, including the modification of DNA cytosine bases with methyl groups, the addition…

 Genetics

Lentiviral Vector Platform for the Efficient Delivery of Epigenome-editing Tools into Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Disease Models

1Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, 2Center for Genomic and Computational Biology, Duke University Medical Center, 3Viral Vector Core, Duke University Medical Center, 4Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center

JoVE 59241

 Genetics

Rapid Fractionation and Isolation of Whole Blood Components in Samples Obtained from a Community-based Setting

1Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 3Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, 4Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 5Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 6Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 7Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine

JoVE 52227

 Medicine

TChIP-Seq: Cell-Type-Specific Epigenome Profiling

1RNA Biology Laboratory, RIKEN, 2RNA Systems Biochemistry Laboratory, RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research, 3Laboratory for Phyloinformatics, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, 4RNA Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, 5Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo

JoVE 58298

 Biology

Sequencing Small Non-coding RNA from Formalin-fixed Tissues and Serum-derived Exosomes from Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Patients

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Augusta University, 2Department of Urology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California, San Francisco, 3Department of Pathology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California, San Francisco

JoVE 60549

 Cancer Research

Comprehensive Autopsy Program for Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

1Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 3Mellen Center for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic

JoVE 59511

 Neuroscience

Laser Capture Microdissection of Highly Pure Trabecular Meshwork from Mouse Eyes for Gene Expression Analysis

1Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 2Cellular and Molecular Pathology Branch, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 3Integrated Laboratory Systems Inc., 4Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc.

JoVE 57576

 Biology

A Bioinformatics Pipeline to Accurately and Efficiently Analyze the MicroRNA Transcriptomes in Plants

1Beijing Key Laboratory of Agricultural Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Beijing Agro-Biotechnology Research Center, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, 2State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, School of Advanced Agricultural Sciences and School of Life Sciences, Peking University

JoVE 59864

 Genetics

Characterizing Histone Post-translational Modification Alterations in Yeast Neurodegenerative Proteinopathy Models

1Chemistry Department, Brooklyn College, 2Ph.D. Program in Biochemistry, Graduate Center of the City University of New York, 3Ph.D. Program in Chemistry, Graduate Center of the City University of New York, 4Ph.D. Programs in Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Biology, Graduate Center of the City University of New York

JoVE 59104

 Genetics

Laser-assisted Lentiviral Gene Delivery to Mouse Fertilized Eggs

1Neurobiology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2Comparative Medicine Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 3Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 4Signal Transduction Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

JoVE 58327

 Biology
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