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Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.

An Enzyme- and Serum-free Neural Stem Cell Culture Model for EMT Investigation Suited for Drug Discovery

1Dept. of Biomedicine, Pharmacenter, University of Basel, 2Molecular Signalling and Gene Therapy, Narayana Nethralaya Foundation, Narayana Health City, 3Brain Ischemia and Regeneration, Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Idar-Oberstein, 5Department of Neurosurgery and Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University, 6Department of Neurology, Laboratory of Molecular Neuro Oncology, University Hospital of Zurich

JoVE 54018

 Developmental Biology

Structure Of Ferrocene

JoVE 10347

Source: Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University 


In 1951, Kealy and Pauson reported to Nature the synthesis of a new organometallic compound, ferrocene.1 In their original report, Pauson suggested a structure for ferrocene in which the iron is singly bonded (sigma bonds) to one carbon atom of…

 Inorganic Chemistry

Zebrafish Maintenance and Husbandry

JoVE 5152

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a powerful vertebrate model system for studying development, modeling disease, and screening for novel therapeutics. Due to their small size, large numbers of zebrafish can be housed in the laboratory at low cost. Although zebrafish are relatively easy to maintain, special consideration must be given to both diet and water quality to in order to optimize …

 Biology II

Growing Crystals for X-ray Diffraction Analysis

JoVE 10216

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Jimmy Franco - Merrimack College


X-ray crystallography is a method commonly used to determine the spatial arrangement of atoms in a crystalline solid, which allows for the determination of the three-dimensional shape of a molecule or complex. Determining the three-dimensional structure of a compound is of…

 Organic Chemistry

Cell-surface Signaling

JoVE 10877

Hormones—or any molecule that binds to a receptor, known as a ligand—that are lipid-insoluble (water-soluble) are not able to diffuse across the cell membrane. In order to be able to affect a cell without entering it, these hormones bind to receptors on the cell membrane. When a first messenger, a hormone, binds to a receptor, a signal cascade is set off, causing second messengers, proteins inside the cell, to become activated, resulting in downstream effects. Cell membrane receptors have three portions: an external ligand-binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and an internal domain. There are three categories of cell membrane receptors based on the consistency of the structure and function of these domains within each category. One category is ligand-gated ion channels which, when bound to a ligand, undergo a conformational change, allowing ions through a channel formed by the transmembrane portion of the receptor. A second category is G-proteins-coupled receptors which have a distinct structure with seven transmembrane domains. Binding of the external domain to a ligand causes the alpha subunit, one of three subunits attached to the internal portion of the receptor, to disassociate from the receptor and create a cellular response. The third category of receptors, the enzyme-linked receptor—also called catalytic receptor

 Core: Endocrine System

Positive Regulator Molecules

JoVE 10763

To consistently produce healthy cells, the cell cycle—the process that generates daughter cells—must be precisely regulated.

Internal regulatory checkpoints ensure that a cell’s size, energy reserves, and DNA quality and completeness are sufficient to advance through the cell cycle. At these checkpoints, positive and negative regulators promote or inhibit a cell’s continuation through the cell cycle. Positive regulators include two protein groups that allow cells to pass through regulatory checkpoints: cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). These proteins are present in eukaryotes, ranging from yeast to humans. Cyclins can be categorized as G1, G1/S, S, or M cyclins based on the cell cycle phase or transition they are most involved in. Generally, levels of a given cyclin are low during most of the cell cycle but abruptly increase at the checkpoint they most contribute to (G1 cyclins are an exception, as they are required throughout the cell cycle). The cyclin is then degraded by enzymes in the cytoplasm and its levels decline. Meanwhile, cyclins needed for the next checkpoints accumulate. To regulate the cell cycle, cyclins must be bound to a Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)—a type of enzyme that attaches a phosphate group to modify the activity of a target protein.

 Core: Cell Cycle and Division

Using RNA-sequencing to Detect Novel Splice Variants Related to Drug Resistance in In Vitro Cancer Models

1Department of Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, 2Department of Hematology, VU University Medical Center, 3Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, 4Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, 5Division of General and Transplant Surgery, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Pisana, Universita’ di Pisa, 6Amsterdam Immunology and Rheumatology Center, VU University Medical Center, 7Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, 8Cancer Pharmacology Lab, AIRC Start-Up Unit, University of Pisa, 9Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CNR-Nano

JoVE 54714

 Cancer Research

Contractility Measurements of Human Uterine Smooth Muscle to Aid Drug Development

1Harris-Wellbeing Preterm Birth Research Centre, Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, 2School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, 3Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Biological Chemistry, University of Vienna, 4Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, 5Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna

JoVE 56639

 Medicine

Physiologic Patient Derived 3D Spheroids for Anti-neoplastic Drug Screening to Target Cancer Stem Cells

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Rogel Cancer Center, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, 4Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan

JoVE 59696

 Cancer Research

Multi-target Parallel Processing Approach for Gene-to-structure Determination of the Influenza Polymerase PB2 Subunit

1Protein Crystallization Lab, Emerald Bio, 2Molecular Biology Lab, Emerald Bio, 3Scientific Sales Representative, Emerald Bio, 4Group Leader II, Emerald Bio, 5Group Leader I, Emerald Bio, 6Chair of Advisory Board, Emerald Bio, 7Director of Multi-Target Services, Emerald Bio, 8Senior Project Leader, Emerald Bio, 9Project Leader II & SSGCID Site Manager, Emerald Bio

JoVE 4225

 Immunology and Infection

Longitudinal Morphological and Physiological Monitoring of Three-dimensional Tumor Spheroids Using Optical Coherence Tomography

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Lehigh University, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lehigh University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, 4Department of Technology R&D, Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, 5Department of Bioengineering, Lehigh University, 6Center for Photonics and Nanoelectronics, Lehigh University

JoVE 59020

 Cancer Research

Human iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocyte Networks on Multiwell Micro-electrode Arrays for Recurrent Action Potential Recordings

1Aurora Research Institute, Advocate Aurora Health Care, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3Department of Medicine-Cardiovascular, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University

JoVE 59906

 Bioengineering

A Human Blood-Brain Interface Model to Study Barrier Crossings by Pathogens or Medicines and Their Interactions with the Brain

1Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR 3569, Unité de Neuroimmunologie Virale, 2Institut Pasteur, Unité d’Epidémiologie et de Pathophysiologie des Virus Oncogènes, Université Sorbonne Paris Cité/Paris Diderot, 3Institut Pasteur, PFIA, DTPS

JoVE 59220

 Neuroscience

Imaging- and Flow Cytometry-based Analysis of Cell Position and the Cell Cycle in 3D Melanoma Spheroids

1The Centenary Institute, 2Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 3The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, The University of Queensland, 4Department of Dermatology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, 5Discipline of Dermatology, University of Sydney

JoVE 53486

 Medicine

Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Based Developmental Toxicity Assays for Chemical Safety Screening and Systems Biology Data Generation

1Center of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Institute of Neurophysiology, University of Cologne, 2Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, 3Department of Statistics, Technical University of Dortmund, 4Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Technical University of Dortmund

JoVE 52333

 Developmental Biology
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