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Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from Drug tolerance which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.

An Affordable HIV-1 Drug Resistance Monitoring Method for Resource Limited Settings

1Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, 2Unit D11, Jembi Health Systems, 3Academic Medical Center, Department of Global Health, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD), University of Amsterdam, 4Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Centre for AIDS Research, Stanford Medical School

JoVE 51242

 Medicine

Whole Genome Sequencing of Candida glabrata for Detection of Markers of Antifungal Drug Resistance

1Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology-Public Health, Westmead Hospital, 2Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, ICPMR, 3Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, The University of Sydney, 4Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Canberra Hospital and Health Services, Australian National University Medical School, 5Infection Management Services, Australian National University Medical School, 6Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, St. Vincent's Hospital, 7Department of Infectious Diseases, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre

JoVE 56714

 Medicine

Using RNA-sequencing to Detect Novel Splice Variants Related to Drug Resistance in In Vitro Cancer Models

1Department of Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, 2Department of Hematology, VU University Medical Center, 3Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, 4Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, 5Division of General and Transplant Surgery, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Pisana, Universita’ di Pisa, 6Amsterdam Immunology and Rheumatology Center, VU University Medical Center, 7Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, 8Cancer Pharmacology Lab, AIRC Start-Up Unit, University of Pisa, 9Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CNR-Nano

JoVE 54714

 Cancer Research

Retrovirus Life Cycles

JoVE 10825

Retroviruses have a single-stranded RNA genome that undergoes a special form of replication. Once the retrovirus has entered the host cell, an enzyme called reverse transcriptase synthesizes double-stranded DNA from the retroviral RNA genome. This DNA copy of the genome is then integrated into the host’s genome inside the nucleus via an enzyme called integrase. Consequently, the retroviral genome is transcribed into RNA whenever the host’s genome is transcribed, allowing the retrovirus to replicate. New retroviral RNA is transported to the cytoplasm, where it is translated into proteins that assemble new retroviruses. Particular drugs have been developed to fight retroviral infections. These drugs target specific aspects of the life cycle. One class of antiretroviral drugs, fusion inhibitors, prevents the entry of the retrovirus into the host cell by inhibiting the fusion of the retrovirus with the host cell membrane. Another class of antiretrovirals, reverse transcriptase inhibitors, inhibits the reverse transcriptase enzymes that make DNA copies of the retroviral RNA genome. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors are competitive inhibitors; during the process of reverse transcription, the drug molecules are incorporated into the growing DNA strand instead of the usual DNA bases. Once incorporated, the drug molecules block further progress by the r

 Core: Viruses

Viral Mutations

JoVE 10827

A mutation is a change in the sequence of bases of DNA or RNA in a genome. Some mutations occur during replication of the genome due to errors made by the polymerase enzymes that replicate DNA or RNA. Unlike DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase is prone to errors because it is not capable of “proofreading” its work. Viruses with RNA-based genomes, like HIV, therefore accrue mutations faster than viruses with DNA-based genomes. Because mutation and recombination provide the raw material for adaptive evolution, RNA-based viruses can quickly evolve resistance to antiviral drugs. A major goal in modern biology is to reveal evolutionary history by comparing genome sequences. An important practical application of these analyses is the study of evolution in disease-causing viruses. Genome sequencing has become so rapid and inexpensive that it is now possible to investigate the origins and ongoing evolution of viruses during a disease outbreak. For example, in 2013, a new strain of avian influenza called H7N9 emerged in China that caused severe respiratory illness in humans. By comparing the mutations in viruses isolated from humans and several bird species, researchers were able to show that the ancestor of this flu strain probably originated in Chinese domestic duck populations before it was transmitted to chickens. The ancestral strain subsequently re

 Core: Viruses

SNP Genotyping

JoVE 5544

Single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, are the most common form of genetic variation in humans. These differences at individual bases in the DNA often do not directly affect gene expression, but in many cases can still be useful for locating disease-associated genes or for diagnosing patients. Numerous methodologies have been established to identify, or…

 Genetics

Molecular Cloning

JoVE 5074

Molecular cloning is a set of methods, which are used to insert recombinant DNA into a vector - a carrier of DNA molecules that will replicate recombinant DNA fragments in host organisms. The DNA fragment, which may be a gene, can be isolated from a prokaryotic or eukaryotic specimen. Following isolation of the fragment of interest, or insert, both the vector and insert must be cut with…

 Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

What are Viruses?

JoVE 10821

A virus is a microscopic infectious particle that consists of an RNA or DNA genome enclosed in a protein shell. It is not able to reproduce on its own: it can only make more viruses by entering a cell and using its cellular machinery. When a virus infects a host cell, it removes its protein coat and directs the host’s machinery to transcribe and translate its genetic material. The hijacked cell assembles the replicated components into thousands of viral progeny, which can rupture and kill the host cell. The new viruses then go on to infect more host cells. Viruses can infect different types of cells: bacteria, plants, and animals. Viruses that target bacteria, called bacteriophages (or phages), are very abundant. Current research focuses on phage therapy to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in humans. Viruses that infect cultivated plants are also highly studied since epidemics lead to huge crop and economic losses. Viruses were first discovered in the 19th century when an economically-important crop, the tobacco plant, was plagued by a mysterious disease—later identified as Tobacco mosaic virus. Animal viruses are of great importance both in veterinary research and in medical research. Moreover, viruses underlie many human diseases, ranging from the common cold, chickenpox, and herpes, to more dangerous infection

 Core: Viruses

Yeast Transformation and Cloning

JoVE 5083

S. cerevisiae are unicellular eukaryotes that are a commonly-used model organism in biological research. In the course of their work, yeast researchers rely upon the fundamental technique of transformation (the uptake of foreign DNA by the cell) to control gene expression, induce genetic deletions, express recombinant proteins, and label subcellular structures.


This…

 Biology I

A Combined 3D Tissue Engineered In Vitro/In Silico Lung Tumor Model for Predicting Drug Effectiveness in Specific Mutational Backgrounds

1Department of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (TERM), University Hospital Wuerzburg, 2Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University Hospital Wuerzburg, 3Department of Bioinformatics, University Wuerzburg, 4Translational Center Wuerzburg, Fraunhofer Institute Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB

JoVE 53885

 Bioengineering

Physiologic Patient Derived 3D Spheroids for Anti-neoplastic Drug Screening to Target Cancer Stem Cells

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, 3Rogel Cancer Center, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, 4Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan

JoVE 59696

 Cancer Research

Generation of Microtumors Using 3D Human Biogel Culture System and Patient-derived Glioblastoma Cells for Kinomic Profiling and Drug Response Testing

1Biomedical Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 3Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 4Vivo Biosciences, Inc.

JoVE 54026

 Medicine

Prediction of HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage (Tropism) by Sequence Analysis using a Genotypic Approach

1Institute of Virology, University of Cologne, 2Max Planck Institute for Informatics, 3Institute for Immune genetics, 4Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, University of Duesseldorf, 5Department of Dermatology, University of Essen, 6Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cologne, 7Augustinerinnen Hospital

JoVE 3264

 Immunology and Infection

Induction of Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transitions in Sarcoma Cells

1Department of Medicine, Duke University, 2Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, 3Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University, 4Solid Tumor Program and the Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, 5Duke University Medical Center

JoVE 55520

 Developmental Biology

Longitudinal Morphological and Physiological Monitoring of Three-dimensional Tumor Spheroids Using Optical Coherence Tomography

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Lehigh University, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lehigh University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, 4Department of Technology R&D, Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, 5Department of Bioengineering, Lehigh University, 6Center for Photonics and Nanoelectronics, Lehigh University

JoVE 59020

 Cancer Research

Imaging- and Flow Cytometry-based Analysis of Cell Position and the Cell Cycle in 3D Melanoma Spheroids

1The Centenary Institute, 2Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 3The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, The University of Queensland, 4Department of Dermatology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, 5Discipline of Dermatology, University of Sydney

JoVE 53486

 Medicine

Initial Evaluation of Antibody-conjugates Modified with Viral-derived Peptides for Increasing Cellular Accumulation and Improving Tumor Targeting

1Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Université de Sherbrooke, 2Sherbrooke Molecular Imaging Center (CIMS), Université de Sherbrooke, 3Sherbrooke Institute of Pharmacology

JoVE 55440

 Bioengineering

Establishment and Analysis of Three-Dimensional (3D) Organoids Derived from Patient Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis Specimens and their Xenografts

1Department of Urology, University of California, San Diego, 2Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, 3Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, 5Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of California, San Diego

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60367

 JoVE In-Press

Obtaining Cancer Stem Cell Spheres from Gynecological and Breast Cancer Tumors

1Institute of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 2Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), area of Environment Genetics and Oncobiology (CIMAGO), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3CNC.IBILI, University of Coimbra, 4Universitary Clinic of Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 5Gynecology A Service, Coimbra Hospital and Universitary Center, 6Institute of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 7Institute of Experimental Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 8Cytometry Operational Management Unit, Clinical Pathology Service, Coimbra Hospital and Universitary Center, 9Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, ESTESC-Coimbra Health School, Laboratory Biomedical Sciences

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60022

 JoVE In-Press

Design of Cecal Ligation and Puncture and Intranasal Infection Dual Model of Sepsis-Induced Immunosuppression

1West China School of Basic Medical Sciences & Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, 3State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University

JoVE 59386

 Immunology and Infection

Establishment and Characterization of Three Afatinib-resistant Lung Adenocarcinoma PC-9 Cell Lines Developed with Increasing Doses of Afatinib

1Advanced Cancer Translational Research Institute, Showa University, 2Division of Breast Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Showa University School of Medicine, 3Division of Allergology and Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine

JoVE 59473

 Cancer Research

Designing Automated, High-throughput, Continuous Cell Growth Experiments Using eVOLVER

1Biological Design Center, Boston University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 3Program in Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Boston University, 4Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, 5Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University

JoVE 59652

 Genetics

A Chronic Immobilization Stress Protocol for Inducing Depression-Like Behavior in Mice

1Department of Anatomy and Convergence Medical Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, Bio Anti-aging Medical Research Center, Gyeongsang National University Medical School, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Pusan National University, 3Department of Physiology and Convergence Medical Sciences, Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University Medical School

JoVE 59546

 Behavior
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