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Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.

Molecular Cloning

JoVE 5074

Molecular cloning is a set of methods, which are used to insert recombinant DNA into a vector - a carrier of DNA molecules that will replicate recombinant DNA fragments in host organisms. The DNA fragment, which may be a gene, can be isolated from a prokaryotic or eukaryotic specimen. Following isolation of the fragment of interest, or insert, both the vector and insert must be cut with restriction enzymes and purified. The purified pieces are joined together though a technique called ligation. The enzyme that catalyzes the ligation reaction is known as ligase. This video explains the major methods that are combined, in tandem, to comprise the overall molecular cloning procedure. Critical aspects of molecular cloning are discussed, such as the need for molecular cloning strategy and how to keep track of transformed bacterial colonies. Verification steps, such as checking purified plasmid for the presence of insert with restrictions digests and sequencing are also mentioned.


 Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

Prediction of HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage (Tropism) by Sequence Analysis using a Genotypic Approach

1Institute of Virology, University of Cologne, 2Max Planck Institute for Informatics, 3Institute for Immune genetics, 4Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, University of Duesseldorf, 5Department of Dermatology, University of Essen, 6Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cologne, 7Augustinerinnen Hospital

JoVE 3264


 Immunology and Infection

An Affordable HIV-1 Drug Resistance Monitoring Method for Resource Limited Settings

1Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, 2Unit D11, Jembi Health Systems, 3Academic Medical Center, Department of Global Health, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD), University of Amsterdam, 4Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Centre for AIDS Research, Stanford Medical School

JoVE 51242


 Medicine

Pairwise Growth Competition Assay for Determining the Replication Fitness of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses

1Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, 2Departments of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, 3U.S Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 4Henry M. Jackson Foundation

JoVE 52610


 Immunology and Infection

A Primary Neuron Culture System for the Study of Herpes Simplex Virus Latency and Reactivation

1Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, 2Molecular Neurobiology Program, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 3Department of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine, 4Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 5Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, 6Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 7Center for Neural Science, New York University School of Medicine

JoVE 3823


 Immunology and Infection

Induction of Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transitions in Sarcoma Cells

1Department of Medicine, Duke University, 2Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, 3Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University, 4Solid Tumor Program and the Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, 5Duke University Medical Center

JoVE 55520


 Developmental Biology

Genetic Engineering of Primary Mouse Intestinal Organoids Using Magnetic Nanoparticle Transduction Viral Vectors for Frozen Sectioning

1Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Department of Cell Biology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57040


 JoVE In-Press

A Novel Surgical Approach for Intratracheal Administration of Bioactive Agents in a Fetal Mouse Model

1Molecular Virology and Gene Therapy, KU Leuven, 2Department of Woman and Child, KU Leuven, 3Neurobiology and Gene Therapy, KU Leuven, 4Division of Nuclear Medicine, KU Leuven, 5Biomedical NMR Unit/ MoSAIC, KU Leuven

JoVE 4219


 Medicine

Initial Evaluation of Antibody-conjugates Modified with Viral-derived Peptides for Increasing Cellular Accumulation and Improving Tumor Targeting

1Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Université de Sherbrooke, 2Sherbrooke Molecular Imaging Center (CIMS), Université de Sherbrooke, 3Sherbrooke Institute of Pharmacology

JoVE 55440


 Bioengineering

Advanced Animal Model of Colorectal Metastasis in Liver: Imaging Techniques and Properties of Metastatic Clones

1Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, 2Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology and Ludwig Center for Metastasis Research, The University of Chicago

JoVE 54657


 Cancer Research

Genome-wide RNAi Screening to Identify Host Factors That Modulate Oncolytic Virus Therapy

1Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) Research Institute, 2Department of Biology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, 4Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary

JoVE 56913


 Cancer Research

Deciphering and Imaging Pathogenesis and Cording of Mycobacterium abscessus in Zebrafish Embryos

1Dynamique des Interactions Membranaires Normales et Pathologiques, CNRS, UMR 535, Université Montpellier, 2Centre d'études d'agents Pathogènes et Biotechnologies pour la Santé, CNRS, FRE 3689, Université Montpellier, 3Unité de Formation et de Recherche des Sciences de la Santé, EA3647-EPIM, Université Versailles St Quentin

JoVE 53130


 Immunology and Infection

Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents

1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki

JoVE 51869


 Behavior

Targeted and Selective Treatment of Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Teratomas Using External Beam Radiation in a Small-animal Model

1Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 3Medical Service, Cardiology Section, Veteran Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, 4Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 5Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program, Stanford University School of Medicine, 6Peking University Shenzhen Health Science Institute, 7Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58115


 JoVE In-Press

Generation of Human 3D Lung Tissue Cultures (3D-LTCs) for Disease Modeling

1Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, 2German Center of Lung Research (DZL), 3Translational Lung Research and CPC-M bioArchive, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich DZL/CPC-M, 4Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lung Bioengineering and Regeneration, Lund University, 5Wallenberg Center for Molecular Medicine, Lund University, 6Stem Cell Centre, Lund University, 7Asklepios Fachkliniken Munich-Gauting, 8Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58437


 JoVE In-Press

A Flexible Low Cost Hydroponic System for Assessing Plant Responses to Small Molecules in Sterile Conditions

1Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in energy and materials (CNPEM), 2University of Campinas (UNICAMP), 3University of Viçosa (UFV), 4CTBE, CNPEM, 5Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE/CNPEM), Max Planck Partner Group

JoVE 57800


 Environment

Generation of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol by a Third-Generation Machine-Vaping Device: Application to Toxicological Studies

1Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, 2Department of Environmental Sciences, College of the Coast & Environment, Louisiana State University, 3SCIREQ Scientific Respiratory Equipment Inc.

JoVE 58095


 Chemistry

Three-dimensional Organotypic Cultures of Vestibular and Auditory Sensory Organs

1Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, 2Caruso Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, 3Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Laboratory of Sensory Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University

JoVE 57527


 Developmental Biology

Dried Blood and Serum Spots As A Useful Tool for Sample Storage to Evaluate Cancer Biomarkers

1Osteoncology and Rare Tumors Center, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Meldola, Italy, 2Unit of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Meldola, Italy, 3Biosciences Laboratory, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Meldola, Italy, 4Department of Oncology, Bugando Medical Center, Mwanza, Tanzania

JoVE 57113


 Cancer Research

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