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Dry Ice: A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.
 Science Education: Essentials of Organic Chemistry

Conducting Reactions Below Room Temperature

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Dana Lashley - College of William and Mary

Demonstration by: Matt Smith

When new bonds are formed in the course of a chemical reaction, it requires that the involved species (atoms or molecules) come in very close proximity and collide into one another. The collisions between these species are more frequent and effective the higher the speed at which these molecules are moving. A widely used rule of thumb, which has its roots in the Arrhenius equation1, states that raising the temperature by 10 K will approximately double the rate of a reaction, and raising the temperature by 20 K will quadruple the rate: (1) Equation (1) is often found in its logarithmic form: (2) where k is the rate of the chemical reaction, A is the frequency factor (relating to frequency of molecular collisions), Ea is the activation energy required for the reaction, R is the ideal gas constant, and T is the temperature at which the r

 JoVE Biology

Removal of Exogenous Materials from the Outer Portion of Frozen Cores to Investigate the Ancient Biological Communities Harbored Inside

1Biogeochemical Sciences Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Hanover, NH, 2Environmental Processes Branch, Environmental Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, 3Terrestrial and Cryospheric Scienes Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Hanover, NH, 4Biogeochemical Sciences Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Fairbanks, AK


JoVE 54091

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Antibody Binding Specificity for Kappa (Vκ) Light Chain-containing Human (IgM) Antibodies: Polysialic Acid (PSA) Attached to NCAM as a Case Study

1Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 2Mayo Clinic Center for Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmune Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 3Center for Regenerative Medicine, Neuroregeneration, Mayo Clinic, 4Division of Neonatal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 5Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic


JoVE 54139

 JoVE Biochemistry

Optimized Protocol for the Extraction of Proteins from the Human Mitral Valve

1Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 2Cardiovascular Tissue Bank of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 3Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Cardiovascular Section, University of Milan, 4Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Development and Innovation Cardiac Surgery Unit, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS


JoVE 55762

 JoVE Biology

Tissue Triage and Freezing for Models of Skeletal Muscle Disease

1Division of Pediatric Pathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University, 3Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, Virginia Tech, 4Division of Biomedical Informatics, Department of Biostatistics, Department of Computer Science, University of Kentucky, 5Division of Genetics and Genomics, The Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 6Cure Congenital Muscular Dystrophy, 7Joshua Frase Foundation, 8Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, 9Department of Physiology, University of Arizona


JoVE 51586

 JoVE Biology

High-Throughput, Multi-Image Cryohistology of Mineralized Tissues

1Department of Reconstructive Sciences, University of Connecticut Health Center, 2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, 4Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester


JoVE 54468

 JoVE Developmental Biology

In Vitro Colony Assays for Characterizing Tri-potent Progenitor Cells Isolated from the Adult Murine Pancreas

1Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 2Irell & Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 3Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology


JoVE 54016

 JoVE Cancer Research

Next Generation Sequencing for the Detection of Actionable Mutations in Solid and Liquid Tumors

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Abramson Cancer Center


JoVE 52758

 JoVE In-Press

Assessment of Dopaminergic Homeostasis in Mice by Use of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis and Synaptosomal Dopamine Uptake

1Molecular Neuropharmacology and Genetics Laboratory, Lundbeck Foundation Center for Biomembranes in Nanomedicine, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2Laboratory of Neuropsychiatry, Psychiatric Center Copenhagen and Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen

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JoVE 56093

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