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Dry Ice: A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.

Regulating Temperature in the Lab: Preserving Samples Using Cold

JoVE 5042

Preservation of laboratory samples, specimens, and reagents using extreme cold is routinely performed in biomedical research labs. This video will discuss some of the methods for keeping laboratory samples cold and will explain the correct cooling method to use for each experimental requirement.


For example, cooling agents, such as ice…

 General Laboratory Techniques

Working with Hot and Cold Sources

JoVE 10366

Source: Robert M. Rioux & Suprita Jharimune, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA


Working with extreme temperatures, both high and low, is an integral part of many laboratory operations. For many, mentioning a laboratory instantly evokes the mental picture of a Bunsen burner. Bunsen burners and hot plates are used…

 Lab Safety

Conducting Reactions Below Room Temperature

JoVE 10224

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Dana Lashley - College of William and Mary


Demonstration by: Matt Smith


When new bonds are formed in the course of a chemical reaction, it requires that the involved species (atoms or molecules) come in very close proximity and collide into one another. The collisions between…

 Organic Chemistry

Transformation of E. coli Cells Using an Adapted Calcium Chloride Procedure

JoVE 10515

Source: Natalia Martin1, Andrew J. Van Alst1, Rhiannon M. LeVeque1, and Victor J. DiRita1
1 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University


Bacteria have the ability to exchange genetic material (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid, DNA) in a process known as horizontal gene transfer. Incorporating exogenous DNA…

 Microbiology

Rotary Evaporation to Remove Solvent

JoVE 5501

Source: Dr. Melanie Pribisko Yen and Grace Tang — California Institute of Technology


Rotary evaporation is a technique most commonly used in organic chemistry to remove a solvent from a higher-boiling point compound of interest. The rotary evaporator, or "rotovap", was invented in 1950 by the chemist Lyman C. Craig. The…

 Organic Chemistry

Schlenk Lines Transfer of Solvents

JoVE 5679

Source: Hsin-Chun Chiu and Tyler J. Morin, laboratory of Dr. Ian Tonks—University of Minnesota Twin Cities


Schlenk lines and high vacuum lines are both used to exclude moisture and oxygen from reactions by running reactions under a slight overpressure of inert gas (usually N2 or Ar) or under vacuum. Vacuum transfer has been developed …

 Organic Chemistry

Lewis Acid-Base Interaction in Ph3P-BH3

JoVE 10316

Source: Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University 


One of the goals of chemistry is to use models that account for trends and provide insights into the properties of reactants that contribute to reactivity. Substances have been classified as acids and bases since the time of the ancient Greeks, but the…

 Inorganic Chemistry

Biodistribution of Nano-drug Carriers: Applications of SEM

JoVE 10472

Source: Peiman Shahbeigi-Roodposhti and Sina Shahbazmohamadi, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut


Nanoparticles have been increasingly used research towards targeted drug delivery and controlled drug release. While most of these particles have been developed as polymeric…

 Biomedical Engineering

Purification of Ferrocene by Sublimation

JoVE 10429

Source: Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University 


Sublimation, the direct phase transition of a solid into a gas without first becoming a liquid, takes place at temperatures and pressures lower than that of the compound's triple point (Figure 1).The process of sublimation can be utilized …

 Inorganic Chemistry

Molecular Orbital (MO) Theory

JoVE 10447

Source: Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University


This protocol serves as a guide in the synthesis of two metal complexes featuring the ligand 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (dppf): M(dppf)Cl2, where M = Ni or Pd. While both of these transition metal complexes are 4-coordinate, they exhibit different…

 Inorganic Chemistry

Proper Operation of Vacuum Based Equipment

JoVE 10377

Source: Robert M. Rioux, Ajay Sathe & Zhifeng Chen, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA


Vacuum is required for a number of laboratory procedures. This is most routinely achieved in the laboratory by the use of vacuum pumps. In addition to working at low pressures, vacuum pumps can also be used to enable…

 Lab Safety

Degassing Liquids with Freeze-Pump-Thaw Cycling

JoVE 5639

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Neil Branda — Simon Fraser University


Degassing refers to the process by which dissolved gases are removed from a liquid. The presence of dissolved gases such as oxygen or carbon dioxide can impede chemical reactions that utilize sensitive reagents, interfere with spectroscopic measurements, or can…

 Organic Chemistry

Application of Group Theory to IR Spectroscopy

JoVE 10442

Source: Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University


Metal carbonyl complexes are used as metal precursors for the synthesis of organometallic complexes as well as catalysts. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is one of the most utilized and informative characterization methods of CO containing compounds. Group theory, or…

 Inorganic Chemistry

Quadruply Metal-Metal Bonded Paddlewheels

JoVE 10441

Source: Corey Burns, Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University


Paddlewheel complexes are a class of compounds comprised of two metal ions (1st, 2nd, or 3rd row transition metals) held in proximity by four bridging ligands (most commonly formamidinates or carboxylates) (Figure 1). Varying the…

 Inorganic Chemistry

Ozonolysis of Alkenes

JoVE 10339

Source: Vy M. Dong and Zhiwei Chen, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA


This experiment will demonstrate an example of an ozonolysis reaction to synthesize vanillin from isoeugenol (Figure 1). Ozonolysis of alkenes, an oxidation reaction between ozone and an alkene, is a common method to prepare…

 Organic Chemistry II

n-Butyllithium Titration

JoVE 10338

Source: Vy M. Dong and Diane Le, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA


This experiment will demonstrate a simple technique to titrate and obtain an accurate concentration of the organolithium reagent, n-butyllithium (n-BuLi). Organolithium reagents are extremely air- and moisture-sensitive and…

 Organic Chemistry II

Synthesis Of A Ti(III) Metallocene Using Schlenk Line Technique

JoVE 10428

Source: Tamara M. Powers, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University 


Inorganic chemists often work with highly air- and water-sensitive compounds. The two most common and practical methods for air-free synthesis utilize either Schlenk lines or gloveboxes. This experiment will demonstrate how to perform simple manipulations on…

 Inorganic Chemistry

Comprehensive Autopsy Program for Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

1Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 3Mellen Center for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic

JoVE 59511

 Neuroscience

Removal of Exogenous Materials from the Outer Portion of Frozen Cores to Investigate the Ancient Biological Communities Harbored Inside

1Biogeochemical Sciences Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Hanover, NH, 2Environmental Processes Branch, Environmental Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, 3Terrestrial and Cryospheric Scienes Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Hanover, NH, 4Biogeochemical Sciences Branch, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research & Development Center, Fairbanks, AK

JoVE 54091

 Biology

A Stainless Protocol for High Quality RNA Isolation from Laser Capture Microdissected Purkinje Cells in the Human Post-Mortem Cerebellum

1Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, 2Division of Movement Disorders, Department of Neurology, Yale University, 3Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, 4Center for Neuroepidemiology and Clinical Neurological Research, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University

JoVE 58953

 Neuroscience

Antibody Binding Specificity for Kappa (Vκ) Light Chain-containing Human (IgM) Antibodies: Polysialic Acid (PSA) Attached to NCAM as a Case Study

1Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 2Mayo Clinic Center for Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmune Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 3Center for Regenerative Medicine, Neuroregeneration, Mayo Clinic, 4Division of Neonatal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 5Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic

JoVE 54139

 Immunology and Infection

Microarray-based Identification of Individual HERV Loci Expression: Application to Biomarker Discovery in Prostate Cancer

1Joint Unit Hospices de Lyon-bioMérieux, 2Medical Diagnostic Discovery Department, BioMérieux, 3Department of Pathology and Cytology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 4Medical Faculty, Lyon 1 University, 5Data and Knowledge Laboratory, BioMérieux, 6Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 7Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon

JoVE 50713

 Medicine

High-Throughput, Multi-Image Cryohistology of Mineralized Tissues

1Department of Reconstructive Sciences, University of Connecticut Health Center, 2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, 4Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester

JoVE 54468

 Biology

Replication of the Ordered, Nonredundant Library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 Transposon Insertion Mutants

1Department of Pediatrics, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 57298

 Immunology and Infection

Assessment of Dopaminergic Homeostasis in Mice by Use of High-performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis and Synaptosomal Dopamine Uptake

1Molecular Neuropharmacology and Genetics Laboratory, Lundbeck Foundation Center for Biomembranes in Nanomedicine, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2Laboratory of Neuropsychiatry, Psychiatric Center Copenhagen and Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen

JoVE 56093

 Neuroscience

Laser Capture Microdissection of Highly Pure Trabecular Meshwork from Mouse Eyes for Gene Expression Analysis

1Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 2Cellular and Molecular Pathology Branch, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 3Integrated Laboratory Systems Inc., 4Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc.

JoVE 57576

 Biology

Phosphopeptide Enrichment Coupled with Label-free Quantitative Mass Spectrometry to Investigate the Phosphoproteome in Prostate Cancer

1Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, School of Graduate Studies, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey, 2Graduate Program in Quantitative Biomedicine, School of Graduate Studies, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey, 3Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 4Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UCLA Metabolomics Center, and California NanoSystems Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 5Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, 6Pharmacology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 7Cancer Metabolism and Growth Program, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey

JoVE 57996

 Cancer Research
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