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Egg Shell:

The In Ovo Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) Assay as an Efficient Xenograft Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

1Department of Medicine, Division of Liver Diseases, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2Department of Otolaryngology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 3Division of Nephrology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 4Departments of Medicine, Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 5Bobby R. Alford Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine

JoVE 52411


 Medicine

Dual Labeling of Neural Crest Cells and Blood Vessels Within Chicken Embryos Using ChickGFP Neural Tube Grafting and Carbocyanine Dye DiI Injection

1Birth Defects Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, 2Blizard Institute, Centre for Digestive Diseases, Queen Mary University of London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 3Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam

JoVE 52514


 Developmental Biology

Drosophila Preparation and Longitudinal Imaging of Heart Function In Vivo Using Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM)

1Bioengineering Program, Lehigh University, 2Center for Photonics and Nanoelectronics, Lehigh University, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Lehigh University, 4State Key Laboratory of Software Engineering, Wuhan University, 5Genetics and Aging Research Unit, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School

JoVE 55002


 Biology

Chick ex ovo Culture

JoVE 5157

One strength of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) as a model organism for developmental biology is that the embryo develops outside the female and is easily accessible for experimental manipulation. Many techniques allow scientists to examine chicken embryos inside the eggshell (in ovo), but embryonic access can be limited at later stages of development. Fortunately, chicks can also be cultured ex ovo, or outside of the eggshell. The major advantage to ex ovo culture is greater access to tissues that might otherwise be obstructed by the shell or the orientation of the chick within the egg, especially for embryos in later stages of development. There are two principle strategies to ex ovo culture: whole yolk culture and explant culture. During whole yolk culture, the eggshell is cracked and the contents are transferred to a simple housing vessel. However, in explant culture methods, the embryo is excised from the yolk and mounted in the housing vessel to maintain membrane tension, which is important for normal development. Basic protocols for whole-yolk and explant techniques will be provided in this video, along with a discussion of the pros and cons of culturing chicks outside of the shell. Finally, experimental applications of ex ovo culture will be discussed, demonstrating how this


 Biology II

Basic Chick Care and Maintenance

JoVE 5154

Chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) are a valuable research tool, not only for studying important concepts in vertebrate development, neuroscience, and tumor biology, but also as an efficient system in which to propagate viruses. Although eggs can be purchased from external suppliers and working with chicks requires very little specialized equipment, an understanding of proper handling procedures is required for normal embryo development. This video will provide an overview of egg handling principles, including an explanation of the incubation parameters that can profoundly impact development: temperature, humidity, and egg rotation. Most experiments that use chicken eggs require access to the embryo within the shell, which is achieved by cutting a small, resealable hole, or “window.” This process is described in step-by-step detail, along with several other techniques essential for working with chicks, such as candling and India ink injection. Finally, the video will review some practical applications of these basic techniques in advanced scientific research.


 Biology II

Development of the Chick

JoVE 5155

The chicken embryo (Gallus gallus domesticus) provides an economical and accessible model for developmental biology research. Chicks develop rapidly and are amenable to genetic and physiological manipulations, allowing researchers to investigate developmental pathways down to the cell and molecular levels.

This video review of chick development begins by describing the process of egg fertilization and formation within the chicken reproductive tract. Next, the most commonly used chick staging nomenclature, the Hamburger Hamilton staging series, is introduced. Major events in chick development are then outlined, including the dramatic cellular movements known as gastrulation that form the three major cell layers: The ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Cells from these layers go on to generate all the tissues within the organism, as well as extraembryonic membranes, which are necessary for the transport of gases, nutrients, and wastes within the eggshell. To conclude the discussion, some exciting techniques will be presented as strategies for studying chick development in greater detail.


 Biology II

The C. elegans Intestine As a Model for Intercellular Lumen Morphogenesis and In Vivo Polarized Membrane Biogenesis at the Single-cell Level: Labeling by Antibody Staining, RNAi Loss-of-function Analysis and Imaging

1Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Developmental Biology and Genetics Core, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau

JoVE 56100


 Developmental Biology

Studying Diabetes Through the Eyes of a Fish: Microdissection, Visualization, and Analysis of the Adult tg(fli:EGFP) Zebrafish Retinal Vasculature

1Department of Vascular Biology and Tumorangiogenesis, Center for Biomedicine and Medical Technology Mannheim (CBTM), Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, 2V. Medical Clinic, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56674


 JoVE In-Press

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