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Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.

IgY Technology: Extraction of Chicken Antibodies from Egg Yolk by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Precipitation

1Center for Biological Security, Robert Koch-Institute, 2CICVyA - INTA Castelar, Instituto de Virología, 3Center of Molecular Immunology, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba, 4Department of Biology, Chemistry, Pharmacy, Institute of Biology-Neurobiology, Free University of Berlin, 5Institut of Pharmacology, Charité-University Medicine of Berlin

JoVE 3084


 Immunology and Infection

Establishment of Larval Zebrafish as an Animal Model to Investigate Trypanosoma cruzi Motility In Vivo

1Laboratory of Neurosciences and Circadian Rhythms, School of Medicine, Universidad de los Andes, 2Biophysics Group, Department of Physics, Universidad de los Andes, 3Laboratory of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidad de los Andes, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, 5Notre Dame Initiative for Global Development, University of Notre Dame, 6USAID Research and Innovation Fellowship program

JoVE 56238


 Developmental Biology

Dual Labeling of Neural Crest Cells and Blood Vessels Within Chicken Embryos Using ChickGFP Neural Tube Grafting and Carbocyanine Dye DiI Injection

1Birth Defects Research Centre, UCL Institute of Child Health, 2Blizard Institute, Centre for Digestive Diseases, Queen Mary University of London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 3Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam

JoVE 52514


 Developmental Biology

Fat Body Organ Culture System in Aedes Aegypti, a Vector of Zika Virus

1Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, 2Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University, 3Department of Computer Sciences, New Mexico State University, 4Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, 5Institute of Applied Biosciences, New Mexico State University

JoVE 55508


 Biology

Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Spermatozoa: Collection, Cryopreservation, and Heterologous In Vitro Fertilization

1Department of Animal Reproduction, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), 2Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 3Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Murcia, Campus Mare Nostrum, 4Mundomar, Benidorm, 5Veterinary Services, L'Oceanográfic, Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias, Junta de Murs i Vals, s/n, 46013

JoVE 55237


 Developmental Biology

Using Zebrafish Models of Human Influenza A Virus Infections to Screen Antiviral Drugs and Characterize Host Immune Cell Responses

1Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, 2Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, University of Maine, 3School of Biology and Ecology, University of Maine, 4Division of Intramural Research, Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 5Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Maine

JoVE 55235


 Immunology and Infection

Transplantation of Zebrafish Pediatric Brain Tumors into Immune-competent Hosts for Long-term Study of Tumor Cell Behavior and Drug Response

1Department of Oncological Sciences and Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City

JoVE 55712


 Cancer Research

Chick ex ovo Culture

JoVE 5157

One strength of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) as a model organism for developmental biology is that the embryo develops outside the female and is easily accessible for experimental manipulation. Many techniques allow scientists to examine chicken embryos inside the eggshell (in ovo), but embryonic access can be limited at later stages of development. Fortunately, chicks can also be cultured ex ovo, or outside of the eggshell. The major advantage to ex ovo culture is greater access to tissues that might otherwise be obstructed by the shell or the orientation of the chick within the egg, especially for embryos in later stages of development. There are two principle strategies to ex ovo culture: whole yolk culture and explant culture. During whole yolk culture, the eggshell is cracked and the contents are transferred to a simple housing vessel. However, in explant culture methods, the embryo is excised from the yolk and mounted in the housing vessel to maintain membrane tension, which is important for normal development. Basic protocols for whole-yolk and explant techniques will be provided in this video, along with a discussion of the pros and cons of culturing chicks outside of the shell. Finally, experimental applications of ex ovo culture will be discussed, demonstrating how this


 Biology II

Development of the Chick

JoVE 5155

The chicken embryo (Gallus gallus domesticus) provides an economical and accessible model for developmental biology research. Chicks develop rapidly and are amenable to genetic and physiological manipulations, allowing researchers to investigate developmental pathways down to the cell and molecular levels.

This video review of chick development begins by describing the process of egg fertilization and formation within the chicken reproductive tract. Next, the most commonly used chick staging nomenclature, the Hamburger Hamilton staging series, is introduced. Major events in chick development are then outlined, including the dramatic cellular movements known as gastrulation that form the three major cell layers: The ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Cells from these layers go on to generate all the tissues within the organism, as well as extraembryonic membranes, which are necessary for the transport of gases, nutrients, and wastes within the eggshell. To conclude the discussion, some exciting techniques will be presented as strategies for studying chick development in greater detail.


 Biology II

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