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Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.

Cleavage and Blastulation

JoVE 10908

After a large-single-celled zygote is produced via fertilization, the process of cleavage occurs while zygotes travel through the uterine tube. Cleavage is a mitotic cell division that does not result in growth. With each round of successive cell division, daughter cells get increasingly smaller.

At the beginning of embryogenesis, maternal mRNAs control development. However, by the eight-cell stage of cleavage, embryonic genes become activated in a process called zygotic genome activation (ZGA). As a result, maternal mRNAs get degraded, and ZGA causes a transition from maternal to zygotic genetic control of developing an embryo. Although maternal mRNAs get degraded, previously translated proteins may remain in the embryo through later stages of development. Cleavage patterns vary between organisms depending on the presence and distribution of egg yolk amongst other factors. For example, mammals have a holoblastic rotational cleavage pattern. They are holoblastic because they have sparse, but evenly distributed yolk and therefore end up with a cleavage furrow that extends through the entire embryo as opposed to being meroblastic where the cleavage furrow does not extend through the yolk-dense portion of the cytoplasm. At the onset of cleavage, rotational cleavage begins when the zygote first divides to form two smaller daughter cells called blas

 Core: Reproduction and Development

Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Spermatozoa: Collection, Cryopreservation, and Heterologous In Vitro Fertilization

1Department of Animal Reproduction, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), 2Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 3Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Murcia, Campus Mare Nostrum, 4Mundomar, Benidorm, 5Veterinary Services, L'Oceanográfic, Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias, Junta de Murs i Vals, s/n, 46013

JoVE 55237

 Developmental Biology

Injecting Gryllus bimaculatus Eggs

1Colby College, 2Division of Evolutionary Developmental Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, 3Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 4Department Biology and Department of Neuroscience, Bowdoin College, 5Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University

JoVE 59726

 Developmental Biology

Effectiveness of the Air Stripping in Two Salmonid Fish, Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) and Brown Trout (Salmo Trutta Morpha fario)

1Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Science, 2Department of Salmonid Fish Research, The Stanisław Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Institute

JoVE 56894

 Developmental Biology

Development of an Electrochemical DNA Biosensor to Detect a Foodborne Pathogen

1Laboratory of Food Safety and Food Integrity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 2Laboratory of Functional Device, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 4La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University

JoVE 56585

 Bioengineering

The Portable Chemical Sterilizer (PCS), D-FENS, and D-FEND ALL: Novel Chlorine Dioxide Decontamination Technologies for the Military

1United States Army-Natick Soldier RD&E Center, Warfighter Directorate, 2Department of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Connecticut Health Center, 3Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 4Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute

JoVE 4354

 Bioengineering

IgY Technology: Extraction of Chicken Antibodies from Egg Yolk by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Precipitation

1Center for Biological Security, Robert Koch-Institute, 2CICVyA - INTA Castelar, Instituto de Virología, 3Center of Molecular Immunology, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba, 4Department of Biology, Chemistry, Pharmacy, Institute of Biology-Neurobiology, Free University of Berlin, 5Institut of Pharmacology, Charité-University Medicine of Berlin

JoVE 3084

 Immunology and Infection
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