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Embryo Loss: Early pregnancy loss during the Embryo, Mammalian stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.

Using In Vivo and Tissue and Cell Explant Approaches to Study the Morphogenesis and Pathogenesis of the Embryonic and Perinatal Aorta

1Yale Cardiovascular Research Center, Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine

JoVE 56039


 Developmental Biology

Evaluation of Vascular Control Mechanisms Utilizing Video Microscopy of Isolated Resistance Arteries of Rats

1Department of Physical Therapy, Marquette University, 2Medical College of Wisconsin, 3Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia, Texas Wesleyan University, 5Office of Research, Medical College of Wisconsin

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56133


 JoVE In-Press

Analysis of Cell Suspensions Isolated from Solid Tissues by Spectral Flow Cytometry

1Flow Cytometry Core Facility, Center for Translational Research-Technical Core, Institut Pasteur, 2Unit for Lymphopoiesis, Immunology Department, INSERM U1223, University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Cellule Pasteur, Institut Pasteur, 3Stem-Cell Microenvironments in Repair/Regeneration Team, Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde (i3s), INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, 4ICBAS - Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, 5Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Team, UMRS 1166, ICAN - Institute of Cardiometabolism And Nutrition, UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, INSERM

JoVE 55578


 Biology

Zebrafish Reproduction and Development

JoVE 5151

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a popular model for studying genetics and developmental biology. The transparency of these animals at early developmental stages permits the direct visualization of tissue morphogenesis at the cellular level. Furthermore, zebrafish are amenable to genetic manipulation, allowing researchers to determine the effect of gene expression on the development of a vertebrate with a high degree of genetic similarity to humans. This video provides a brief overview of the major phases of zebrafish development, with particular focus on the first 24 hours post fertilization (hpf). The discussion begins with a zygote consisting of a single cell, or blastomere, atop a large ball of yolk. Cleavage of the blastomere is then shown to produce an embryo containing thousands of cells within a matter of hours. Next, the dramatic cellular movements known as epiboly and gastrulation are explained, revealing how they contribute to reshaping a mass of cells into a moving embryo with a beating heart in just 1 day. The presentation follows embryo development through the hatching phase, when they become swimming, feeding larvae. Important considerations for caring for larvae are incorporated, including a brief review of how fish are raised to adulthood in a dedicated facility known as the nursery. Finally, the video concludes with some commo


 Biology II

Studying Diabetes Through the Eyes of a Fish: Microdissection, Visualization, and Analysis of the Adult tg(fli:EGFP) Zebrafish Retinal Vasculature

1Department of Vascular Biology and Tumorangiogenesis, Center for Biomedicine and Medical Technology Mannheim (CBTM), Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, 2V. Medical Clinic, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56674


 JoVE In-Press

Zebrafish Breeding and Embryo Handling

JoVE 5150

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are an important model organism that is particularly valuable for research in developmental biology. Zebrafish are extremely fertile and can produce hundreds of progeny per week, so it is relatively easy to collect a large number of embryos for high sample numbers. Furthermore, zebrafish undergo rapid development and embryos are transparent, allowing for easy visualization of developmental processes. This video covers the steps required for the collection of newly fertilized zebrafish embryos. A brief overview of zebrafish mating behavior is presented, followed by instructions for setting up crosses in specialized laboratory breeding tanks that allow for controlled mating. Also covered are the conditions required to initiate the release of eggs (known as spawning) the morning after tanks are set. Next, essential techniques for working with embryos are presented, including the inhibition of pigment development with the chemical PTU, and dechorionation: a procedure in which the shell-like membrane surrounding the embryo (the chorion) is removed. Finally, the video concludes with some practical applications of these techniques in developmental research.


 Biology II

Zebrafish Microinjection Techniques

JoVE 5130

One of the major advantages to working with zebrafish (Danio rerio) is that their genetics can be easily manipulated by microinjection of early stage embryos. Using this technique, solutions containing genetic material or knockdown constructs are delivered into the blastomeres: the embryonic cells sitting atop the yolk of the newly fertilized egg. Delivery into the cytoplasm is achieved either through direct injection into the blastomere, or via natural cytoplasmic movements that occur after a solution is injected into the yolk. Successful genetic manipulations are usually followed by quantification of embryonic phenotypes in order to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of development. This video will provide an introduction to carrying out microinjections in zebrafish embryos. The discussion begins with a review of the essential tools for the technique, including the injection apparatus and the microinjector, which controls fluid movement with pressure pulses of air. Next, important preparatory steps are demonstrated, such as the pouring of agar plates to stabilize embryos during injection and calibration of the microinjection apparatus. The injection procedure is then presented along with tips on when and where injections should be performed. Finally, applications of the microinjection technique are discussed, including gene overexpression via mRNA inj


 Biology II

A Novel Strategy Combining Array-CGH, Whole-exome Sequencing and In Utero Electroporation in Rodents to Identify Causative Genes for Brain Malformations

1University of Florence, 2INSERM INMED, 3Aix-Marseille University, 4Plateforme Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire INMED, 5Royal Children's Hospital, 6Murdoch Children's Research Institute, 7University of Melbourne, 8Plateforme postgenomique INMED, 9University of Pavia, 10Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, 11Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, 12IRCCS Casimiro Mondino Foundation, 13Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, 14IRCCS Stella Maris, 15Columbia University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 53570


 JoVE In-Press

Vein Interposition Model: A Suitable Model to Study Bypass Graft Patency

1Transplant and Stem Cell Immunobiology Lab, University Heart Center Hamburg, 2Department of Surgery, Transplant and Stem Cell Immunobiology Lab, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), 3Cardiovascular Research Center (CVRC) and DZHK German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Hamburg/Kiel/Luebeck, 4Cardiovascular Surgery, University Heart Center Hamburg

JoVE 54839


 Medicine

Interfacing 3D Engineered Neuronal Cultures to Micro-Electrode Arrays: An Innovative In Vitro Experimental Model

1Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and System Engineering (DIBRIS), University of Genova, 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud University Medical Center, 3Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT)

JoVE 53080


 Neuroscience

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