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Embryoid Bodies: Spontaneous aggregations of human embryonic stem cells that occur in vitro after culturing in a medium that lacks Leukemic inhibitory factor. The embryoid bodies can further differentiate into cells that represent different lineages.

Embryonic Stem Cell Culture and Differentiation

JoVE 5332

Culturing embryonic stem (ES) cells requires conditions that maintain these cells in an undifferentiated state to preserve their capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency. Stem cell biologists are continuously optimizing methods to improve the efficiency of ES cell culture, and are simultaneously trying to direct the differentiation of ES cells into specific cell types that could be used in regenerative medicine. This video describes the basic principles of ES cell culture, and demonstrates a general protocol to grow and passage ES cells. We also take a closer look at the hanging drop method, which is used to differentiate ES cells. Finally, this video will describe a few applications of ES cell culture and differentiation techniques, including a method used to generate functional heart muscle cells in vitro.


 Developmental Biology

Induced Pluripotency

JoVE 5333

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are somatic cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to form undifferentiated stem cells. Like embryonic stem cells, iPSCs can be grown in culture conditions that promote differentiation into different cell types. Thus, iPSCs may provide a potentially unlimited source of any human cell type, which is a major breakthrough in the field of regenerative medicine. However, more research into the derivation and differentiation of iPSCs is still needed to actually use these cells in clinical practice. This video first introduces the fundamental principles behind cellular reprogramming, and then demonstrates a protocol for the generation of iPSCs from differentiated mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Finally, it will discuss several experiments in which scientists are improving or applying iPSC generation techniques.


 Developmental Biology

An Introduction to Stem Cell Biology

JoVE 5331

Cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, known as stem cells, are at the center of one of the most exciting fields of science today. Stem cell biologists are working to understand the basic mechanisms that regulate how these cells function. These researchers are also interested in harnessing the remarkable potential of stem cells to treat human diseases.

Here, JoVE presents an introduction to the captivating world of stem cell biology. We begin with a timeline of landmark studies, from the first experimental evidence for hematopoietic stem cells in the 1960s, to more recent breakthroughs like induced pluripotent stem cells. Next, key questions about stem cell biology are introduced, for example: How do these cells maintain their unique ability to undergo self-renewal? This is followed by a discussion of some prominent methods used to answer these questions. Finally, several experiments are presented to demonstrate the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine.


 Developmental Biology

Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Based Developmental Toxicity Assays for Chemical Safety Screening and Systems Biology Data Generation

1Center of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Institute of Neurophysiology, University of Cologne, 2Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, 3Department of Statistics, Technical University of Dortmund, 4Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Technical University of Dortmund

JoVE 52333


 Developmental Biology

Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Frozen Buffy Coats using Non-integrating Episomal Plasmids

1Center for Biomedicine, European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), 2Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Fondazione IRCCS Ca´ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 3Del E. Webb Center for Neuroscience, Aging & Stem Cell Research, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute

JoVE 52885


 Developmental Biology

A Method for Ovarian Follicle Encapsulation and Culture in a Proteolytically Degradable 3 Dimensional System

1Institute for BioNanotechnology in Advanced Medicine, Northwestern University, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, 3Center for Reproductive Research, Northwestern University, 4The Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, 5Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University

JoVE 2695


 Bioengineering

Prediction and Validation of Gene Regulatory Elements Activated During Retinoic Acid Induced Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

1Sanford-Burnham-Prebys Medical Discovery Institute at Lake Nona, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, 3MTA-DE “Lendulet” Immunogenomics Research Group, University of Debrecen

JoVE 53978


 Developmental Biology

Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Alveolar Periosteum and Effects of Vitamin D on Osteogenic Activity of Periosteum-derived Cells

1Chang Gung University, 2Department of Periodontics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 3California Northstate University College of Medicine, 4Department of Nephrology, Clinical Poison Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 5Kidney Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 6Center for Tissue Engineering, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 7Department of Periodontics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 8College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University

JoVE 57166


 Bioengineering

Analysis of Retinoic Acid-induced Neural Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells in Two and Three-dimensional Embryoid Bodies

1Department of Medicine, Cardeza Vascular Research Center, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, 2Department of Molecular Cardiology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 3Department of Cancer Biology, Cardeza Vascular Research Center, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University

JoVE 55621


 Developmental Biology

Structure-function Studies in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Using Recombinase-mediated Cassette Exchange

1Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, 2Inflammation Research Center, VIB, 3Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, 4Cancer Research Institute Ghent (CRIG), 5Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, 6Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, 7Mammalian Functional Genetics Laboratory, Division of Blood Cancers, Australian Centre for Blood Diseases, Department of Clinical Haematology, Monash University and Alfred Health Alfred Centre

JoVE 55575


 Developmental Biology

Efficient Derivation of Human Neuronal Progenitors and Neurons from Pluripotent Human Embryonic Stem Cells with Small Molecule Induction

1San Diego Regenerative Medicine Institute, 2Xcelthera, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Harvard Medical School, 4Division of SCI Research, VA Boston Healthcare System, 5Program in Stem Cell & Regenerative Biology, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 6La Jolla IVF

JoVE 3273


 Neuroscience

Efficient Derivation of Human Cardiac Precursors and Cardiomyocytes from Pluripotent Human Embryonic Stem Cells with Small Molecule Induction

1San Diego Regenerative Medicine Institute, 2Xcelthera, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Harvard Medical School, 4Division of SCI Research, VA Boston Healthcare System, 5Program in Stem Cell & Regenerative Biology, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 6La Jolla IVF

JoVE 3274


 Biology

Alginate Microcapsule as a 3D Platform for Propagation and Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC) to Different Lineages

1Stem Cell Lab, School of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, The University of New South Wales, 2Siriraj Center of Excellence for Stem cell Research, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 3Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital

JoVE 3608


 Bioengineering

Harmonic Nanoparticles for Regenerative Research

1Department of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 2Physics Department, GAP-Biophotonics, University of Geneva, 3Laboratoire d'Optique Biomédicale (LOB), Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de l'Ingénieur, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, 5School of Medicine and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, 6Nikon AG Instruments

JoVE 51333


 Bioengineering

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