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Evoked Potentials: The recorded electrical responses from nerve, muscle, Sensory receptor, or area of the Central nervous system following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (Evoked potentials, Auditory), somatosensory (Evoked potentials, Somatosensory), visual (Evoked potentials, Visual), or motor (Evoked potentials, Motor), or other modalities that have been reported. Often used synonymously to event-related potentials which are associated with higher level cognitive processes.

Event-related Potentials and the Oddball Task

JoVE 10273

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

Given the overwhelming amount of information captured by the sensory organs, it is crucial that the brain is able to prioritize the processing of certain stimuli, to spend less effort on what might not be currently important and to attend to what is. One heuristic the brain uses is to ignore stimuli that are frequent or constant in favor of stimuli that are unexpected or unique. Therefore, rare events tend to be more salient and capture our attention. Furthermore, stimuli that are relevant to our current behavioral goals are prioritized over those that are irrelevant. The neurophysiological correlates of attention have been experimentally examined through the use of the oddball paradigm. Originally introduced in 1975, the oddball task presents the participant with a sequence of repetitive audio or visual stimuli, infrequently interrupted by an unexpected stimulus.1 This interruption by a target stimulus has been shown to elicit specific electrical events that are recordable at the scalp known as event-related potentials (ERPs). An ERP is the measured brain response resulting from a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event. ERPs are measured using electroencephalography (EEG), a noninv


 Neuropsychology

A Multimodal Imaging- and Stimulation-based Method of Evaluating Connectivity-related Brain Excitability in Patients with Epilepsy

1Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 3Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 4Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 53727


 Medicine

Simultaneous Event-Related Brain Potential Recordings in Pairs of Partners: Assessing the Sensitivity of the Brain to the Percepts of Others

1Douglas Mental Health University Institute, 2Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 3Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, 4Department of Psychology, McGill University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56120


 JoVE In-Press

Conscious and Non-conscious Representations of Emotional Faces in Asperger's Syndrome

1Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, 2Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, 3Department of Psychology, Fo Guang University, 4Department of Electrical Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, 5State Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, 6Novosibirsk State University, 7Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University

JoVE 53962


 Behavior

Online Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Protocol for Measuring Cortical Physiology Associated with Response Inhibition

1College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 2Division of Neurology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3Division of Psychiatry, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 4Center for Neurodevelopmental and Imaging Research, Kennedy Krieger Institute

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56789


 JoVE In-Press

A Novel Experimental and Analytical Approach to the Multimodal Neural Decoding of Intent During Social Interaction in Freely-behaving Human Infants

1Laboratory for Noninvasive Brain-Machine Interface Systems, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston, 3Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston

JoVE 53406


 Behavior

Language: The N400 in Semantic Incongruity

JoVE 10275

Source: Laboratories of Sarah I. Gimbel and Jonas T. Kaplan— University of Southern California

Understanding language is one of the most complex cognitive tasks that humans are capable of. Given the incredible amount of possible choices when combining individual words to form meaning in sentences, it is crucial that the brain is able to identify when words form coherent combinations and when an anomaly appears that undermines meaning. Extensive research has shown that certain scalp-recorded electrical events are sensitive to deviations in this kind of expectation. Importantly, these electrical signatures of incongruity are specific to unexpected meanings, and are therefore different from the brain's general responses to other kinds of anomalies. The neurophysiological correlates of semantic incongruity have been experimentally examined through the use of paradigms that present semantically congruent and incongruent ends to sentences. Originally introduced in 1980, the semantic incongruity task presents the participant with a series of sentences that end with either a congruent or incongruent word. To test that the response is from semantic incongruity and not more generally due to surprise, some sentences included words presented in a different size.1 The semantically incongrue


 Neuropsychology

Interictal High Frequency Oscillations Detected with Simultaneous Magnetoencephalography and Electroencephalography as Biomarker of Pediatric Epilepsy

1Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Division of Epilepsy Surgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 54883


 Medicine

Performing Behavioral Tasks in Subjects with Intracranial Electrodes

1Department of Neurosciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2Epilepsy Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 3Department of Neurosciences and Center for Neurological Restoration, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University

JoVE 51947


 Behavior

Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI

1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, 2Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, 4Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario, 5Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, 6Cerebral Systems Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, 7National Centre for Audiology, University of Western Ontario

JoVE 50872


 Neuroscience

Combined Invasive Subcortical and Non-invasive Surface Neurophysiological Recordings for the Assessment of Cognitive and Emotional Functions in Humans

1Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 2Department of Neurology, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Functional Neurosurgery and Stereotaxy, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf

JoVE 53466


 Behavior

A Familiarization Protocol Facilitates the Participation of Children with ASD in Electrophysiological Research

1Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Southern Connecticut State University, 2Haskins Laboratories, 3Department of Psychology, Southern Connecticut State University, 4Department of Social Work, Southern Connecticut State University, 5Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut

JoVE 55941


 Neuroscience

A Wireless, Bidirectional Interface for In Vivo Recording and Stimulation of Neural Activity in Freely Behaving Rats

1Behavioral Neuroscience, Experimental and Biological Psychology, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 2Behavioral Neurosciences Institute (INeC), 3Thomas RECORDING GmbH, 4Department of Neurophysics, Philipps-Universität Marburg

JoVE 56299


 Behavior

A Simple Stimulatory Device for Evoking Point-like Tactile Stimuli: A Searchlight for LFP to Spike Transitions

1Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology (IBFM), Department of Biomedicine, National Research Council, 2Institute of Biomedical Technologies (ITB), Department of Biomedicine, National Research Council, 3Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester

JoVE 50941


 Neuroscience

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