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Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.

The Extracellular Matrix

JoVE 10695

In order to maintain tissue organization, many animal cells are surrounded by structural molecules that make up the extracellular matrix (ECM). Together, the molecules in the ECM maintain the structural integrity of tissue as well as the remarkable specific properties of certain tissues.

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is commonly composed of ground substance, a gel-like fluid, fibrous components, and many structurally and functionally diverse molecules. These molecules include polysaccharides called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs occupy most of the extracellular space and often take up a large volume relative to their mass. This results in a matrix that can withstand tremendous forces of compression. Most GAGs are linked to proteins—creating proteoglycans. These molecules retain sodium ions based on their positive charge and therefore attract water, which keeps the ECM hydrated. The ECM also contains rigid fibers such as collagens—the primary protein component of the ECM. Collagens are the most abundant proteins in animals, making up 25% of protein by mass. A large diversity of collagens with structural similarities provide tensile strength to many tissues. Notably, tissue like skin, blood vessels, and lungs need to be both strong and stretchy to perform their physiological role. A protein called elastin gives p

 Core: Cell Structure and Function

A Multi-well Format Polyacrylamide-based Assay for Studying the Effect of Extracellular Matrix Stiffness on the Bacterial Infection of Adherent Cells

1Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, 3Departments of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine

JoVE 57361

 Immunology and Infection

Light-Induced Molecular Adsorption of Proteins Using the PRIMO System for Micro-Patterning to Study Cell Responses to Extracellular Matrix Proteins

1Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health. Division of Cell Matrix, Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell-Matrix Research, The University of Manchester, 2School of Materials, The University of Manchester, 3Blond McIndoe Laboratories, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Division of Cell Matrix Biology and Regenerative Medicine, The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, 4Department of Plastic Surgery & Burns, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, 5Department of Pathology, UMC Utrecht

JoVE 60092

 Neuroscience

Vasodilation of Isolated Vessels and the Isolation of the Extracellular Matrix of Tight-skin Mice

1Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Research Institute, 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, 5Deptarment of Anesthesiology, Clement J Zblocki Veteran Affairs Medical Center, 6Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 55036

 Immunology and Infection

Fabrication of Extracellular Matrix-derived Foams and Microcarriers as Tissue-specific Cell Culture and Delivery Platforms

1Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program, The University of Western Ontario, 2Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen's University, 4Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Western Ontario

JoVE 55436

 Bioengineering

Epithelial Cell Repopulation and Preparation of Rodent Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds for Renal Tissue Development

1Comprehensive Transplant Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 2Department of Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, 4Simpson Querrey Institute for BioNanotechnology in Medicine, Northwestern University, 5Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico HSC, 6Department of Pathology, University of New Mexico HSC, 7Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, 8Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, 9Department of Surgery, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center

JoVE 53271

 Bioengineering

Non-contact, Label-free Monitoring of Cells and Extracellular Matrix using Raman Spectroscopy

1Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery and Inter-University Centre for Medical Technology Stuttgart-Tübingen (IZST), Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, 2Department of Cell and Tissue Engineering, Fraunhofer Institute of Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology (IGB) Stuttgart, Germany, 3Department for Medical Interfacial Engineering (IGVT), University of Stuttgart, Germany, 4Institute of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Julius-Maximillians University, Würzburg, Germany

JoVE 3977

 Bioengineering

A Human 3D Extracellular Matrix-Adipocyte Culture Model for Studying Matrix-Cell Metabolic Crosstalk

1Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, 2Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Medical School, 3Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, 4Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, 5Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program, University of Michigan, 6Department of Surgery, Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs Healthcare System

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60486

 JoVE In-Press

Exocytosis

JoVE 10711

Exocytosis is used to release material from cells. Like other bulk transport mechanisms, exocytosis requires energy.

While endocytosis takes particles into the cell, exocytosis removes them. Sometimes, the released material are signaling molecules. For example, neurons typically use exocytosis to release neurotransmitters. Cells also use exocytosis to insert proteins, such as ion channels, into their cell membranes, secrete proteins for use in the extracellular matrix, or release waste. There are two main types of exocytosis in eukaryotes: regulated and non-regulated (or constitutive). Regulated exocytosis, which requires an external signal, is used to release neurotransmitters and secrete hormones. Unlike regulated exocytosis, constitutive exocytosis is carried out by all cells. Cells use constitutive exocytosis to release components of the extracellular matrix or incorporate proteins into the plasma membrane. There are five major steps in regulated exocytosis and four in constitutive exocytosis. The first step is vesicle trafficking, in which vesicles transport material to the plasma membrane. Motor proteins actively move vesicles along cytoskeletal tracks of microtubules and filaments. The second step is vesicle tethering, in which vesicles are linked to the plasma membrane. In the third step, vesicle docking, the vesicle membrane at

 Core: Membranes and Cellular Transport

Invasion Assay Using 3D Matrices

JoVE 5645

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a network of molecules that provide a structural framework for cells and tissues and helps facilitate intercellular communication. Three-dimensional cell culture techniques have been developed to more accurately model this extracellular environment for in vitro study. While many cell processes during migration through 3D matrices…

 Cell Biology

Tissues

JoVE 10696

Cells with similar structure and function are grouped into tissues. A group of tissues with a specialized function is called an organ. There are four main types of tissue in vertebrates: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.

Epithelial tissue consists of thin sheets of cells and includes the skin and the linings of internal organs and body cavities. Epithelial cells are tightly packed, providing a barrier against injury, infection, and water loss. Epithelial tissue can be a single layer called simple epithelium, or multiple layers called stratified epithelium. In stratified epithelium, such as the skin, the outer cells—which are subject to damage—are replaced through the division of cells underneath. Epithelial cells have a variety of shapes, including squamous (flattened), cuboid, and columnar. Some epithelial tissues absorb or secrete substances, such as the lining of the intestines. Connective tissue is composed of cells within an extracellular matrix and includes loose connective tissue, fibrous connective tissue, adipose (fat) tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood. Although the characteristics of connective tissue vary greatly, their general function is to support and attach multiple tissues. For example, tendons are made of fibrous connective tissue and attach muscle to bone. Blood transports oxygen, nutrients and waste produ

 Core: Cell Structure and Function

Histotypic Tissue Culture

JoVE 5787

Although two-dimensional tissue culture has been common for some time, cells behave more realistically in a three-dimensional culture, and more closely mimics native tissue. This video introduces histotypic tissue culture, where the growth and propagation of one cell line is done in an engineered three-dimensional matrix to reach high cell density. Here, we show the…

 Bioengineering

Near-infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

JoVE 10394

Source: Arvin H. Soepriatna1, Kelsey A. Bullens2, and Craig J. Goergen1


1 Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


2 Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging…

 Biomedical Engineering

What are Membranes?

JoVE 10971

A key characteristic of life is the ability to separate the external environment from the internal space. To do this, cells have evolved semi-permeable membranes that regulate the passage of biological molecules. Additionally, the cell membrane defines a cell’s shape and interactions with the external environment. Eukaryotic cell membranes also serve to compartmentalize the internal space into organelles, including the endomembrane structures of the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Membranes are primarily composed of phospholipids composed of hydrophilic heads and two hydrophobic tails. These phospholipids self-assemble into bilayers, with tails oriented toward the center of the membrane and heads positioned outward. This arrangement allows polar molecules to interact with the heads of the phospholipids both inside and outside of the membrane but prevents them from moving through the hydrophobic core of the membrane. Proteins and carbohydrates contribute to the unique properties of a cell’s membrane. Integral proteins are embedded in the membrane, while peripheral proteins are attached to either the internal or external surface of the membrane. Transmembrane proteins are integral proteins that span the entire cell membrane. Transmembrane receptor proteins are important for communicating messages from the outside to the insid

 Core: Membranes and Cellular Transport

Quantitative Strain Mapping of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

JoVE 10480

Source: Hannah L. Cebull1, Arvin H. Soepriatna1, John J. Boyle2 and Craig J. Goergen1


1Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana


2Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, St Louis, Missouri


 Biomedical Engineering

Collagen Hydrogels

JoVE 5786

Collagen is another widely used biomaterial that has found popularity in commercial applications, such as photography. Collagen has more recently been used in tissue engineering applications, by creating hydrogels that provide structure to engineered tissue.


This video introduces collagen as a biomaterial, demonstrates how it is…

 Bioengineering

The Transwell Migration Assay

JoVE 5644

Cells migration in response to chemical cues is crucial to development, immunity and disease states such as cancer. To quantify cell migration, a simple assay was developed in 1961 by Dr. Stephen Boyden, which is now known as the transwell migration assay or Boyden chamber assay. This set-up consists an insert which separates the wells of a multiwell plate into top and…

 Cell Biology

Primary Neuronal Cultures

JoVE 5214

The complexity of the brain often requires neuroscientists to use a simpler system for experimental manipulations and observations. One powerful approach is to generate a primary culture by dissecting nervous system tissue, dissociating it into single cells, and growing those cells in vitro. Primary cultures make neurons and glia easily accessible to the…

 Neuroscience

Overview of Tissue Engineering

JoVE 5785

Tissue engineering is an emerging field, which aims to create artificial tissue from biomaterials, specific cells and growth factors. These engineered tissue constructs have far-reaching benefits, with possibilities for organ replacement and tissue repair.


This video introduces the field of tissue engineering and examines the components …

 Bioengineering

Overview of Biomaterials

JoVE 5797

Biomaterials are materials engineered to interact favorably with biological organisms or molecules. These materials can be derived from or produced by an organism, or can even be a synthesized polymer. Engineers use these novel materials in a wide range of applications, such as tissue engineering, biosensing and drug delivery.


This video…

 Bioengineering

An Introduction to Cell Motility and Migration

JoVE 5643

Cell motility and migration play important roles in both normal biology and in disease. On one hand, migration allows cells to generate complex tissues and organs during development, but on the other hand, the same mechanisms are used by tumor cells to move and spread in a process known as cancer metastasis. One of the primary cellular machineries that make cell movement…

 Cell Biology

Explant Culture of Neural Tissue

JoVE 5209

The intricate structure of the vertebrate nervous system arises from a complex series of events involving cell differentiation, cell migration, and changes in cell morphology. Studying these processes is essential to our understanding of nervous system function as well as our ability to diagnose and treat disorders that result from abnormal development. However, neural…

 Neuroscience

An Introduction to Neuroanatomy

JoVE 5204

Neuroanatomy is the study of nervous system structures and how they relate to function. One focus of neuroanatomists is the macroscopic structures within the central and peripheral nervous systems, like the cortical folds on the surface of the brain. However, scientists in this field are also interested in the microscopic relationships between neurons and glia - the two…

 Neuroscience

Histological Sample Preparation for Light Microscopy

JoVE 5039

Histology is the study of cells and tissues, which is typically aided by the use of a light microscope. The preparation of histological samples can vary greatly based on the inherent properties of the samples such as size and hardness as well as expected post-processing which includes planned staining techniques or other down-stream applications. As described in this video, specimen…

 General Laboratory Techniques

Real-time Iontophoresis with Tetramethylammonium to Quantify Volume Fraction and Tortuosity of Brain Extracellular Space

1Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, 2Department of Cell Biology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 3Neural and Behavioral Science Graduate Program, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 4Division of Neonatology, University of Virginia, 5Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine

JoVE 55755

 Neuroscience

Pancreatic Tissue-Derived Extracellular Matrix Bioink for Printing 3D Cell-Laden Pancreatic Tissue Constructs

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, 2School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, 3Asan Institute for Life Science, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, 4Division of Hepato-Biliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, 5Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 60434

 JoVE In-Press

In Vitro Colony Assays for Characterizing Tri-potent Progenitor Cells Isolated from the Adult Murine Pancreas

1Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 2Irell & Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 3Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology

JoVE 54016

 Developmental Biology

An Analytical Tool-box for Comprehensive Biochemical, Structural and Transcriptome Evaluation of Oral Biofilms Mediated by Mutans Streptococci

1Center for Oral Biology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 2State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, 3Department of General Medicine, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center

JoVE 2512

 Immunology and Infection

Generation of Microtumors Using 3D Human Biogel Culture System and Patient-derived Glioblastoma Cells for Kinomic Profiling and Drug Response Testing

1Biomedical Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 2Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 3Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 4Vivo Biosciences, Inc.

JoVE 54026

 Medicine

Mammalian Cell Division in 3D Matrices via Quantitative Confocal Reflection Microscopy

1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 2Johns Hopkins Physical Sciences - Oncology Center, Johns Hopkins University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 4Departments of Oncology and Pathology and Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 56364

 Bioengineering

Patterning the Geometry of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Colonies on Compliant Substrates to Control Tissue-Level Mechanics

1Graduate Program in Bioengineering, University of California San Francisco and University of California Berkeley, 2Center for Bioengineering and Tissue Regeneration, Department of Surgery, University of California San Francisco, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Berkeley, 4Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California San Francisco, 5UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, Helen Diller Family Cancer Research Center, University of California San Francisco, 6Department of Anatomy, Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco

JoVE 60334

 Bioengineering
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