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Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.

Eye Tracking During Visually Situated Language Comprehension: Flexibility and Limitations in Uncovering Visual Context Effects

1Institute of German Studies and Linguistics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 2Center for Advanced Research in Education – CIAE, Universidad de Chile, 3Institute of Psychology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 4Cognitive Interaction Technology Excellence Cluster (CITEC), Bielefeld University, 5Faculty of Linguistics and Literature, Bielefeld University, 6Department of Education, Concordia University

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JoVE 57694


 JoVE In-Press

Recording Horizontal Saccade Performances Accurately in Neurological Patients Using Electro-oculogram

1Department of Cell Physiology, Kyorin University, 2Segawa Memorial Neurological Clinic for Children, 3Department of Neurology, University of Tokyo, 4Department of Neurology, Kyorin University, 5Department of Neurology, Fukushima Medical University

JoVE 56934


 Behavior

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE 10091

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction; therefore, any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical; therefore, while performing the examination, the examiner should compare each side to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a


 Physical Examinations III

Vision Training Methods for Sports Concussion Mitigation and Management

1Neurology and Rehabilitative Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 2Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Cincinnati, 3Department of Athletics, University of Cincinnati, 4Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cincinnati, 5College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, 6Division of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

JoVE 52648


 Behavior

Eye Exam

JoVE 10149

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA

Proper evaluation of the eyes in a general practice setting involves vision testing, orbit inspection, and ophthalmoscopic examination. Before beginning the exam, it is crucial to be familiar with the anatomy and physiology of the eye. The upper eyelid should be slightly over the iris, but it shouldn't cover the pupil when open; the lower lid lies below the iris. The sclera normally appears white or slightly buff in color. The appearance of conjunctiva, a transparent membrane covering the anterior sclera and the inner eyelids, is a sensitive indicator of ocular disorders, such as infections and inflammation. The tear-producing lacrimal gland lies above and lateral to the eyeball. Tears spread down and across the eye to drain medially into two lacrimal puncta before passing into the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct to the nose. The iris divides the anterior from the posterior chamber. Muscles of the iris control the size of the pupil, and muscles of the ciliary body behind it control the focal length of the lens. The ciliary body also produces aqueous humor, which largely determines intraocular pressure (Figure 1). Cranial nerve


 Physical Examinations II

Eye Tracking in Cognitive Experiments

JoVE 5421

Eye tracking as the name suggests involves tracking of eye-movements. It is a non-invasive, sensitive tool that quantifies and measures eye-movements to describe an individuals' cognitive state. An eye-movement between two fixation points is called a saccade, which is one of the fastest motor movements in our body. By observing the profiles of these eye movements, scientists can better understand neural deficits in patients with cognitive impairments. In this video, we will first look at an overview of different eye movements that eye tracking can capture and the type of data that can be collected. Then, the basic setup and experimental design are reviewed, including different types of eye trackers and details to optimize the eye tracking equipment. Finally, we will take a look at a few specific experiments utilizing eye tracking as a tool to study cognition.


 Behavioral Science

Language: The N400 in Semantic Incongruity

JoVE 10275

Source: Laboratories of Sarah I. Gimbel and Jonas T. Kaplan— University of Southern California

Understanding language is one of the most complex cognitive tasks that humans are capable of. Given the incredible amount of possible choices when combining individual words to form meaning in sentences, it is crucial that the brain is able to identify when words form coherent combinations and when an anomaly appears that undermines meaning. Extensive research has shown that certain scalp-recorded electrical events are sensitive to deviations in this kind of expectation. Importantly, these electrical signatures of incongruity are specific to unexpected meanings, and are therefore different from the brain's general responses to other kinds of anomalies. The neurophysiological correlates of semantic incongruity have been experimentally examined through the use of paradigms that present semantically congruent and incongruent ends to sentences. Originally introduced in 1980, the semantic incongruity task presents the participant with a series of sentences that end with either a congruent or incongruent word. To test that the response is from semantic incongruity and not more generally due to surprise, some sentences included words presented in a different size.1 The semantically incongrue


 Neuropsychology

Cranial Nerves Exam II (VII-XII)

JoVE 10005

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

The cranial nerve examination follows the mental status evaluation in a neurological exam. However, the examination begins with observations made upon greeting the patient. For example, weakness of the facial muscles (which are innervated by cranial nerve VII) can be readily apparent during the first encounter with the patient. Cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) also has sensory branches, which innervate the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the medial aspect of the external auditory canal. Therefore, finding ipsilateral taste dysfunction in a patient with facial weakness confirms the involvement of cranial nerve VII. In addition, knowledge of the neuroanatomy helps the clinician to localize the level of the lesion: unilateral weakness of the lower facial muscles suggests a supranuclear lesion on the opposite side, while lesions involving the nuclear or infranuclear portion of the facial nerve manifest with an ipsilateral paralysis of all the facial muscles on the involved side. Cranial nerve VIII (the acoustic nerve) has two divisions: the hearing (cochlear) division and the vestibular division, which innervates the semi


 Physical Examinations III

A Novel Experimental and Analytical Approach to the Multimodal Neural Decoding of Intent During Social Interaction in Freely-behaving Human Infants

1Laboratory for Noninvasive Brain-Machine Interface Systems, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston, 3Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston

JoVE 53406


 Behavior

Using Fiberless, Wearable fNIRS to Monitor Brain Activity in Real-world Cognitive Tasks

1Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, 2Infrared Imaging Lab, Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technology (ITAB), Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, 3Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Alexandra House, University College London

JoVE 53336


 Behavior

Manipulation of Epileptiform Electrocorticograms (ECoGs) and Sleep in Rats and Mice by Acupuncture

1Department of Sports, Health & Leisure, College of Tourism, Leisure and Sports, Aletheia University, Tainan Campus, 2Department of Neurology, Mackay Memorial Hospital and Mackay Medical College, 3Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, 4Graduate Institute of Brain & Mind Sciences, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 5Graduate Institute of Acupuncture Science, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University

JoVE 54896


 Behavior

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