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Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
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A Structured Rehabilitation Protocol for Improved Multifunctional Prosthetic Control: A Case Study

1Christian Doppler Laboratory for Restoration of Extremity Function, 2Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, 3Department of Neurorehabilitation Engineering, Bernstein Focus Neurotechnology Göttingen, 4University Medical Center Göttingen, Georg-August University, 5University of Applied Sciences FH Campus Wien, 6Research & Development, Otto Bock Healthcare Products GmbH

JoVE 52968


 Behavior

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The Knob Supination Task: A Semi-automated Method for Assessing Forelimb Function in Rats

1Burke Medical Research Institute, 2Texas Biomedical Center, The University of Texas at Dallas, 3Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Texas at Dallas, 4Brain and Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, 5Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College

JoVE 56341


 Behavior

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Motor Exam II

JoVE 10095

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

There are two main types of reflexes that are tested on a neurological examination: stretch (or deep tendon reflexes) and superficial reflexes. A deep tendon reflex (DTR) results from the stimulation of a stretch-sensitive afferent from a neuromuscular spindle, which, via a single synapse, stimulates a motor nerve leading to a muscle contraction. DTRs are increased in chronic upper motor neuron lesions (lesions of the pyramidal tract) and decreased in lower motor neuron lesions and nerve and muscle disorders. There is a wide variation of responses and reflexes graded from 0 to 4+ (Table 1). DTRs are commonly tested to help localize neurologic disorders. A common method of recording findings during the DTR examination is using a stick figure diagram. The DTR test can help distinguish upper and lower motor neuron problems, and can assist in localizing nerve root compression as well. Although the DTR of nearly any skeletal muscle could be tested, the reflexes that are routinely tested are: brachioradialis, biceps, triceps, patellar, and Achilles (Table 2). Superficial reflexes are segmental ref


 Physical Examinations III

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Ultrasound Images of the Tongue: A Tutorial for Assessment and Remediation of Speech Sound Errors

1Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Syracuse University, 2Haskins Laboratories, 3Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders, New York University, 4Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Cincinnati, 5Program in Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences, City University of New York Graduate Center, 6Department of Linguistics, Yale University

JoVE 55123


 Behavior

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Using Retinal Imaging to Study Dementia

1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Therese Pei Fong Chow Research Centre for Prevention of Dementia, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4Gerald Choa Neuroscience Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5Memory Aging and Cognition Centre, National University Health System, 6Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, 7Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 8Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore

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JoVE 56137


 JoVE In-Press

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Partial Optic Nerve Transection in Rats: A Model Established with a New Operative Approach to Assess Secondary Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells

1Aier School of Ophthalmology, Central South University, Changsha, China, 2Institute of Immunology, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing, China, 3Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University; Beijing Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China, 4Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University; Beijing Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China

JoVE 56272


 Neuroscience

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Use of Rabbit Eyes in Pharmacokinetic Studies of Intraocular Drugs

1Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hanyang University Hospital, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, 5Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seoul National University Hospital, 6Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital

JoVE 53878


 Medicine

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Studying Diabetes Through the Eyes of a Fish: Microdissection, Visualization, and Analysis of the Adult tg(fli:EGFP) Zebrafish Retinal Vasculature

1Department of Vascular Biology and Tumorangiogenesis, Center for Biomedicine and Medical Technology Mannheim (CBTM), Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, 2V. Medical Clinic, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University

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JoVE 56674


 JoVE In-Press

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Isolation of Primary Murine Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Ophthalmology, Hamilton Eye Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 2Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 3Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center

JoVE 55785


 Bioengineering

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Blood Withdrawal I

JoVE 10246

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Blood collection is a common requirement for research studies that involve mice and rats. The method of blood withdrawal in mice and rats is dependent upon the volume of blood needed, the frequency of the sampling, the health status of the animal to be bled, and the skill level of the technician.1 All methods discussed-retro-orbital sinus bleeds, initial tail snip bleeds, and intracardiac bleeds-require the use of a general anesthesia.


 Lab Animal Research

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Visualization Method for Proprioceptive Drift on a 2D Plane Using Support Vector Machine

1Applied Brain Science Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2Department of Informatics, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, 3Department of Media and Image Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University

JoVE 53970


 Behavior

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Techniques for Processing Eyes Implanted With a Retinal Prosthesis for Localized Histopathological Analysis

1Bionics Institute, 2Department of Anatomical Pathology, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, 3Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, 4Medical Bionics Department, University of Melbourne

JoVE 50411


 Medicine

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Clinical-oriented Three-dimensional Gait Analysis Method for Evaluating Gait Disorder

1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, 2Faculty of Rehabilitation, School of Health Science, Fujita Health University, 3Department of Rehabilitation, Fujita Health University Hospital, 4Department of Advanced Rehabilitation Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine

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JoVE 57063


 JoVE In-Press

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Motor Exam I

JoVE 10052

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Abnormalities in the motor function are associated with a wide range of diseases, from movement disorders and myopathies to strokes. The motor assessment starts with observation of the patient. When the patient enters the examination area, the clinician observes the patient's ability to walk unassisted and the speed and coordination while moving. Taking the patient's history provides an additional opportunity to observe for evidence of tremors or other abnormal movements, such as chorea or tardive dyskinesia. Such simple but important observations can yield valuable clues to the diagnosis and help to focus the rest of the examination. The motor assessment continues in a systematic fashion, including inspection for muscle atrophy and abnormal movements, assessment of muscle tone, muscle strength testing, and finally the examination of the muscle reflexes and coordination. The careful systematic testing of the motor system and the integration of all the findings provide insight to the level at which the motor pathway is affected, and also help the clinician to formulate the differential diagnosis and determine the course of the subsequent evaluation and treatment.


 Physical Examinations III

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