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Factor VIII: Blood-coagulation factor Viii. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor Viii/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor Viii is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.
 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Multiplex PCR Assay for Typing of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Mec Types I to V in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

1Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance, Alberta Health Services / Calgary Laboratory Services / University of Calgary, 2Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, 3Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, 4Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, 5The Calvin, Phoebe and Joan Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, University of Calgary


JoVE 50779

 JoVE Bioengineering

A Microfluidic Flow Chamber Model for Platelet Transfusion and Hemostasis Measures Platelet Deposition and Fibrin Formation in Real-time

1Transfusion Research Center, Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, 2Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, 3Blood Service, Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, 4Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KULeuven - University of Leuven


JoVE 55351

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Imaging Subcellular Structures in the Living Zebrafish Embryo

1Institute of Neuronal Cell Biology, Technische Universität München, 2Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3Faculty of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität-München, 4Adolf-Butenandt-Institute, Biochemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität-München, 5German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, 6Laboratory of Brain Development and Repair, The Rockefeller University


JoVE 53456

 JoVE Medicine

Experimental and Imaging Techniques for Examining Fibrin Clot Structures in Normal and Diseased States

1Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology & Emory University School of Medicine, 2Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering & Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, 3George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology


JoVE 52019

 JoVE Medicine

Isolated Hepatic Perfusion as a Treatment for Liver Metastases of Uveal Melanoma

1Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, 2Department of Thoracic Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, 3Transplant Institute, Institute of Clinical Sciences, 4Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg


JoVE 52490

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam II (VII-XII)

JoVE Science Education

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

The cranial nerve examination follows the mental status evaluation in a neurological exam. However, the examination begins with observations made upon greeting the patient. For example, weakness of the facial muscles (which are innervated by cranial nerve VII) can be readily apparent during the first encounter with the patient. Cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) also has sensory branches, which innervate the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the medial aspect of the external auditory canal. Therefore, finding ipsilateral taste dysfunction in a patient with facial weakness confirms the involvement of cranial nerve VII. In addition, knowledge of the neuroanatomy helps the clinician to localize the level of the lesion: unilateral weakness of the lower facial muscles suggests a supranuclear lesion on the opposite side, while lesions involving the nuclear or infranuclear portion of the facial nerve manifest with an ipsilateral paralysis of all the facial muscles on the involved side. Cranial nerve VIII (the acoustic nerve) has two divisions: the hearing (cochlear) division and the vestibular division, which innervates the semi

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 JoVE Neuroscience

High-resolution In Vivo Manual Segmentation Protocol for Human Hippocampal Subfields Using 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging

1Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 2Computational Brain Anatomy Laboratory, Douglas Institute, McGill University, 3McGill Centre for Studies in Aging, McGill University, 4MRI Unit, Research Imaging Centre, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 6School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, 7Neuroscience Research Australia, 8Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, 9Kimel Family Translational Imaging Genetics Research Laboratory, Research Imaging Centre, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health


JoVE 51861

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 JoVE In-Press

Optimized Protocol for the Extraction of Proteins from the Human Mitral Valve

1Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 2Cardiovascular Tissue Bank of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, 3Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Cardiovascular Section, University of Milan, 4Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Development and Innovation Cardiac Surgery Unit, IRCCS Centro Cardiologico Monzino

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JoVE 55762

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE Science Education

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction; therefore, any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical; therefore, while performing the examination, the examiner should compare each side to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a

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