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Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the Uterus to its corresponding Ovary. They provide the means for Ovum collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and Fertilization. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.

Fertilization

JoVE 10907

During fertilization, an egg and sperm cell fuse to create a new diploid structure. In humans, the process occurs once the egg has been released from the ovary, and travels into the fallopian tubes. The process requires several key steps: 1) sperm present in the genital tract must locate the egg; 2) once there, sperm need to release enzymes to help them burrow through the protective zona pellucida of the egg; and 3) the membranes of a single sperm cell and egg must fuse, with the sperm releasing its contents—including its nucleus and centrosome—into the egg’s cytoplasm. If these steps are successful, the genetic material of the male and female gametes combine, and mitotic cell division commences, giving rise to a diploid embryo. The binding of the sperm and egg cell brings about various changes, among them the production of waves of calcium ions (Ca2+) pulsing through the egg cell. Such oscillations are initiated by sperm-egg fusion and result from both the release and uptake of endogenous Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum of an egg cell and the simultaneous discharge and intake of such ions from the egg’s extracellular environment. Importantly, calcium signaling modifies the egg by causing vesicles, called cortical granules, that lay directly below its plasma membrane to release their contents into the open space bene

 Core: Reproduction and Development

Diagnostic Necropsy and Tissue Harvest

JoVE 10294

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


Many animal experiments rely on final data collection time points that are gathered from the harvesting and testing of organs and tissues. The use of appropriate methods for the collection of organs and tissues can impact the quality of…

 Lab Animal Research

Sterile Tissue Harvest

JoVE 10298

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN


In 1959 The 3 R's were introduced by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch in their book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The 3 R's are replacement, reduction, and refinement of the use of animals in research.1 The …

 Lab Animal Research

In Vivo and Ex Vivo Approaches to Study Ovarian Cancer Metastatic Colonization of Milky Spot Structures in Peritoneal Adipose

1Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, 2Department of Pathology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 3Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, 4Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, University Health Network, 5Departments of Medicine, Pharmacology, and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center

JoVE 52721

 Medicine

Tubal Cytology of the Fallopian Tube as a Promising Tool for Ovarian Cancer Early Detection

1Department of Pathology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, 4University of Arizona Cancer Center, 5Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

JoVE 55887

 Medicine
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