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Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the Fovea centralis of each eye.
 JoVE Medicine

Techniques for Processing Eyes Implanted With a Retinal Prosthesis for Localized Histopathological Analysis

1Bionics Institute, 2Department of Anatomical Pathology, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, 3Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, 4Medical Bionics Department, University of Melbourne


JoVE 50411

 JoVE Medicine

Techniques for Processing Eyes Implanted with a Retinal Prosthesis for Localized Histopathological Analysis: Part 2 Epiretinal Implants with Retinal Tacks

1Bionics Institute, 2Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, 3Cochlear Limited, 4Department of Anatomical Pathology, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, 5Medical Bionics Department, The University of Melbourne


JoVE 52348

 JoVE Medicine

Chick Heart Invasion Assay for Testing the Invasiveness of Cancer Cells and the Activity of Potentially Anti-invasive Compounds

1Department of Radiation Oncology and Experimental Cancer Research, University of Ghent, 2Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, University of Ghent, 3Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi


JoVE 52792

 JoVE In-Press

Electroencephalographic, Heart Rate, and Galvanic Skin Response Assessment for an Advertising Perception Study: Application to Antismoking PSAs

1Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 2Department of Communication and Social Research, Sapienza University of Rome, 3Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic, and Orthopedic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 4BrainSigns SRL

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55872

 JoVE In-Press

Isolation of Primary Murine Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) by Flow Cytometry

1Department of Ophthalmology, Hamilton Eye Institute, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 2Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 4Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55785

 JoVE Cancer Research

How to Study Basement Membrane Stiffness as a Biophysical Trigger in Prostate Cancer and Other Age-related Pathologies or Metabolic Diseases

1Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República (UDELAR), 2Department of Mechanistic Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, 3School of Biological, Biomedical & Environmental Sciences, University of Hull


JoVE 54230

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE Science Education

Source:Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing, the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases, cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction; therefore, any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical; therefore, while performing the examination, the examiner should compare each side to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a

 JoVE In-Press

Induction of Paralysis and Visual System Dysfunction in Mice by T Cells Specific for Neuromyelitis Optica Autoantigen Aquaporin-4

1Department of Neurology, University of California, 2Program in Immunology, University of California, 3Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, 4Department of Pathology, Stanford University

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JoVE 56185

 JoVE Neuroscience

In vivo Imaging of Optic Nerve Fiber Integrity by Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Mice

1Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, 2Immunology, Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Fritz Lipmann Institute, Jena, 3Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Physics Group, Jena University Hospital


JoVE 51274

 JoVE In-Press

Visualizing Angiogenesis by Multiphoton Microscopy In Vivo in Genetically Modified 3D-PLGA/nHAp Scaffold for Calvarial Critical Bone Defect Repair

1Center for Translational Medicine Research and Development, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maastricht UMC+, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Hospital RWTH, 4Research Laboratory for Biomedical Optics and Molecular Imaging, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55381

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

A Primary Neuron Culture System for the Study of Herpes Simplex Virus Latency and Reactivation

1Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, 2Molecular Neurobiology Program, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 3Department of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine, 4Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 5Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, New York University School of Medicine, 6Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 7Center for Neural Science, New York University School of Medicine


JoVE 3823

 JoVE Medicine

Automated Measurement of Microcirculatory Blood Flow Velocity in Pulmonary Metastases of Rats

1Division of Plastic, Maxillofacial, and Oral Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, 3Department of Cardiology, University of Colorado Denver, 4Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Mainz


JoVE 51630

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