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fMRI: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

JoVE 5212

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique used to investigate human brain function and cognition in both healthy individuals and populations with abnormal brain states. Functional MRI utilizes a magnetic resonance signal to detect changes in blood flow that are coupled to neuronal activation when a specific task is performed. This is possible because hemoglobin within the blood has different magnetic properties depending on whether or not it is bound to oxygen. When a certain task is performed, there is an influx of oxygenated blood to brain regions responsible for that function, and this influx can then be detected with specific MRI scan parameters. This phenomenon is termed the blood oxygen level ependent (BOLD) effect, and can be used to create maps of brain activity. This video begins with a brief overview of how MRI and fMRI signal is obtained. Then, basic experimental design is reviewed, which involves first setting up a stimulus presentation that is specifically designed to test the function that will be mapped. Next, key steps involved in performing the fMRI scan are introduced, including subject safety and setting up at the scanner. Commonly used steps for data processing are then presented, including pre-processing and statistical analysis with the general linear


 Neuroscience

A Protocol for the Administration of Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Training

1Office of the Vice President for Research and Graduate Studies, Wright State University, 2Department of Biomedical, Industrial and Human Factors Engineering, Wright State University, 3Pediatric Radiology and Medical Imaging, Dayton Children's Hospital, 4Department of Trauma Care and Surgery, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, 5Department of Defense Hearing Center of Excellence, JBSA-Lackland, 6Department of Neurology, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University

JoVE 55543


 Neuroscience

Simultaneous Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

1Department of Cognitive Neurology, University Medicine Goettingen, 2Department of Neurology, University Medicine Goettingen, 3German Primate Center, Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, 4DFG Center for Nanoscale Microscopy & Molecular Physiology of the Brain (CNMPB)

JoVE 55866


 Behavior

fMRI Validation of fNIRS Measurements During a Naturalistic Task

1Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, 2Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, 3Department of Histology and Neurobiology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, 4ADAM Center, Department of Physical Therapy, Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, Northeastern University, 5Department of Neurobiology, Yale School of Medicine

JoVE 52116


 Behavior

A Multimodal Imaging- and Stimulation-based Method of Evaluating Connectivity-related Brain Excitability in Patients with Epilepsy

1Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 3Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 4Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 53727


 Medicine

Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI

1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, 2Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, 4Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario, 5Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, 6Cerebral Systems Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, 7National Centre for Audiology, University of Western Ontario

JoVE 50872


 Neuroscience

Design and Implementation of an fMRI Study Examining Thought Suppression in Young Women with, and At-risk, for Depression

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, 2McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study, McMaster University, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, 4Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University

JoVE 52061


 Behavior

Measurement of Fronto-limbic Activity Using an Emotional Oddball Task in Children with Familial High Risk for Schizophrenia

1Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, 2Duke-UNC Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University Medical Center, 3Curriculum in Neurobiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

JoVE 51484


 Behavior

The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism

1Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota

JoVE 51631


 Neuroscience

Utilizing Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Improve Language Function in Stroke Patients with Chronic Non-fluent Aphasia

1Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, 3Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, 4Harold Goodglass Aphasia Research Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 5Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine

JoVE 50228


 Medicine

An Investigation of the Effects of Sports-related Concussion in Youth Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Head Impact Telemetry System

1Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science, University of Toronto, 2Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, 3Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 4Bloorview Kids Rehab, 5Toronto Rehab, 6Cognitive Neurology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 7Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto

JoVE 2226


 Medicine

Motor Maps

JoVE 10175

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

One principle of brain organization is the topographic mapping of information. Especially in sensory and motor cortices, adjacent regions of the brain tend to represent information from adjacent parts of the body, resulting in maps of the body expressed on the surface of the brain. The primary sensory and motor maps in the brain surround a prominent sulcus known as the central sulcus. The cortex anterior to the central sulcus is known as the precentral gyrus and contains the primary motor cortex, while the cortex posterior to the central sulcus is known as the postcentral gyrus and contains the primary sensory cortex (Figure 1). Figure 1: Sensory and motor maps around the central sulcus. The primary motor cortex, which contains a motor map of the body's effectors, is anterior to the central sulcus, in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe. The primary somesthetic (sensory) cortex, which receives touch, pain, and temperature information from the external parts of the body, is located posterior to the central sulcus, in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe.

Using Informational Connectivity to Measure the Synchronous Emergence of fMRI Multi-voxel Information Across Time

1Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania

JoVE 51226


 Neuroscience

Method for Simultaneous fMRI/EEG Data Collection during a Focused Attention Suggestion for Differential Thermal Sensation

1Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, 2Laboratory of Neuroimaging Technology, University of California, Los Angeles, 3Yale School of Medicine, 4Korean Basic Science Institute

JoVE 3298


 Behavior

MRI-guided dmPFC-rTMS as a Treatment for Treatment-resistant Major Depressive Disorder

1Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, 2MRI-Guided rTMS Clinic, University Health Network, 3Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, 4Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 6Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Toronto, 7Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

JoVE 53129


 Medicine

In vivo Imaging of Optic Nerve Fiber Integrity by Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Mice

1Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, 2Immunology, Leibniz Institute for Age Research, Fritz Lipmann Institute, Jena, 3Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Physics Group, Jena University Hospital

JoVE 51274


 Neuroscience

Fiber Connections of the Supplementary Motor Area Revisited: Methodology of Fiber Dissection, DTI, and Three Dimensional Documentation

1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Josephs Hospital and Medical Center, 3Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 4Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, 5Department of Neurosurgery, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, 6Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, University of Istanbul

JoVE 55681


 Neuroscience

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