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Food, Organic: Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.

Construction of Models for Nondestructive Prediction of Ingredient Contents in Blueberries by Near-infrared Spectroscopy Based on HPLC Measurements

1United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

JoVE 53981


 Chemistry

PTR-ToF-MS Coupled with an Automated Sampling System and Tailored Data Analysis for Food Studies: Bioprocess Monitoring, Screening and Nose-space Analysis

1Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), 2Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bolzano, 3Department of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Foggia, 4Institute of Analytical Chemistry & Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens Universität Innsbruck, 5Institut für Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Leopold-Franzens Universität Innsbruck

JoVE 54075


 Chemistry

HKUST-1 as a Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Synthesis of Vanillin

1Autonomous Metropolitan University-Azcapotzalco, 2Institute of Catalysis and Petroleum Chemistry, ICP-CSIC, 3Department of Chemistry, Autonomous Metropolitan University-Iztapalapa, 4Department of Chemistry, Center of Investigation and Superior Studies (IPN), 5Research Institute of Material, National Autonomous University of Mexico

JoVE 54054


 Chemistry

Drosophila Preparation and Longitudinal Imaging of Heart Function In Vivo Using Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM)

1Bioengineering Program, Lehigh University, 2Center for Photonics and Nanoelectronics, Lehigh University, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Lehigh University, 4State Key Laboratory of Software Engineering, Wuhan University, 5Genetics and Aging Research Unit, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School

JoVE 55002


 Biology

Extraction of Biomarkers from Sediments - Accelerated Solvent Extraction

JoVE 10097

Source: Laboratory of Jeff Salacup - University of Massachusetts Amherst

The distribution of a group of organic biomarkers called glycerol-dialkyl glycerol-tetraethers (GDGTs), produced by a suite of archaea and bacteria, were found in modern sediments to change in a predictable manner in response to air or water temperature1,2. Therefore, the distribution of these biomarkers in a sequence of sediments of known age can be used to reconstruct the evolution of air and/or water temperature on decadal to millennial timescales (Figure 1). The production of long high-resolution records of past climates, called paleoclimatology, depends on the rapid analysis of hundreds, possibly thousands of samples. Older extraction techniques, such as sonication or Soxhlet, are too slow. However, the newer Accelerated Solvent Extraction technique was designed with efficiency in mind. Figure 1. An example of a paleoclimate record showing changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the past ~27,000 years3. This record comprises ~115 samples and is based on the isoprenoidal GDGT-based TEX86 SS


 Earth Science

Extraction and Analysis of Microbial Phospholipid Fatty Acids in Soils

1Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 2Department of Science, Augustana Faculty, University of Alberta, 3Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille, 4Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Mount Royal University, 5Forest Ecology & Production, Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada

JoVE 54360


 Environment

Determination Of NOx in Automobile Exhaust Using UV-VIS Spectroscopy

JoVE 10076

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

In the troposphere, ozone is naturally formed when sunlight splits nitrogen dioxide (NO2):

NO2 + sunlight → NO + O

O + O2 O3 Ozone (O3) can go on to react with nitric oxide (NO) to form nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxygen: NO + O3 → NO2 + O2 This results in no net gain of ozone (O3). However, with the anthropogenic production of ozone forming precursors (NO, NO2, and volatile organic compounds) through the combustion of fossil fuels, elevated levels of ozone in the troposphere have been found. Motor vehicle exhaust is a significant source of these ozone forming precursors: NO, NO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For example, mobile sources make up nearly 60% of NO + NO2 emissions. At the high temperatures found in a car’s combustion chamber, nitrogen and oxygen from the air react to form nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2):


 Environmental Science

Genetic Engineering of an Unconventional Yeast for Renewable Biofuel and Biochemical Production

1Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 2NUS Synthetic Biology for Clinical and Technological Innovation (SynCTI), Life Sciences Institute, National University of Singapore, 3Food Science and Chemical Engineering, Singapore Institute of Technology

JoVE 54371


 Genetics

Colorimetric Paper-based Detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes from Large Volumes of Agricultural Water

1Department of Animal Science, University of Wyoming, 2Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, 3Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 4Department of Animal Sciences, Colorado State University, 5Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, 6Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 7Department of Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry, McGill University

JoVE 51414


 Environment

Quantification of the Immunosuppressant Tacrolimus on Dried Blood Spots Using LC-MS/MS

1iC42 Clinical Research and Development, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center of Drug Evaluation Research - Office of Generic Drugs, 4Transplant Clinical Research, University of Cincinnati

JoVE 52424


 Medicine

Culturing and Enumerating Bacteria from Soil Samples

JoVE 10099

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Authors: Bradley Schmitz and Luisa Ikner

Surface soils are a heterogeneous mixture of inorganic and organic particles that combine together to form secondary aggregates. Within and between the aggregates are voids or pores that visually contain both air and water. These conditions create an ideal ecosystem for bacteria, so all soils contain vast populations of bacteria, usually over 1 million per gram of soil. Bacteria are the simplest of microorganisms, known as prokaryotes. Within this prokaryotic group, there are the filamentous microbes known as actinomycetes. Actinomycetes are actually bacteria, but they are frequently considered to be a unique group within the classification of bacteria because of their filamentous structure, which consists of multiple cells strung together to form hyphae. This experiment uses glycerol case media that select for actinomycete colonies, during dilution and plating. Typically, actinomycetes are approximately 10% of the total bacterial population. Bacteria and actinomycetes are found in every environment on Earth, but the abundance and diversity of these microbes in soil is unparalleled. These microbes are also essential for human life and affect what people eat


 Environmental Microbiology

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