1Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen
1Biological Sciences Department, California Polytechnic State University
Immunology and Infection
1School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University
Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN
Millions of mice and rats are bred for use in biomedical research each year. Worldwide, there are several large commercial breeding facilities that supply mice to research laboratories, but many facilities choose to also breed mice and rats in-house to reduce costs and increase research options. When breeding in the animal facility, researchers are able to manipulate the genetics of the animals, time the pregnancies to meet the needs of the research, and work with embryos and neonates as required.
Mice and rats can be bred in a variety of schemes and methods. Technical procedures, such as the use of vaginal cytology, visualization of the vaginal area, and observation of copulatory plugs, have been developed to assist with the synchronization of breeding to correspond to research requirements. This manuscript is an overview of the basic fundamentals of mouse and rat breeding and technical procedures used. More detailed descriptions of the complex breeding schemes, and the full description of the methods for vaginal cytology, are available in the list of references.…
Lab Animal Research
1Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
1Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, 2Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University
1Forage-Animal Production Research Unit, USDA-Agricultural Research Service
Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University
In this experiment, cellulosic material (such as corn stalks, leaves, grasses, etc.) will be used as a feedstock for the production of ethanol. The cellulosic material is first pretreated (ground and heated), digested with enzymes, and then fermented with yeast. Ethanol production is monitored using an ethanol probe. The experiment can be extended to optimize ethanol production by varying the feedstock used, pretreatment conditions, enzyme variation, yeast variation, etc. An alternative method of monitoring the reaction is to measure the carbon dioxide produced (using a gas sensor) instead of the ethanol. As a low-tech alternative, glucose meters (found in any drug store) can be used to monitor the glucose during the process, if an ethanol probe or carbon dioxide gas sensor is not available.
With an increased emphasis on ‘inquiry-based learning”, scientific probes are becoming more popular. Handheld devices like the Vernier Lab Quest used in conjunction with a variety of probes (such as those for conductivity, dissolved oxygen, voltage, and more) allow for less focus on collecting data and/or making graphs and more on analyzing the data and making predictions. Anothe…
1Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, 3Riventa Pool Innovation Centre
1Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines