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Food Supply: The production of food and its movement from point of origin to use or consumption.

An Experimental Protocol for Assessing the Performance of New Ultrasound Probes Based on CMUT Technology in Application to Brain Imaging

1Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, 2Department of Information Engineering, University of Florence, 3Department of Engineering, Roma Tre University, 4FTMTR&D/SPA, STMicroelectronics, 5Brain Connectivity Center, BCC, Istituto Neurologico Nazionale Fondazione C. Mondino I.R.C.C.S., 6Department of Molecular Medicine - Unit of Pathology, University of Pavia, Foundation IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo

JoVE 55798


 Bioengineering

Fundamentals of Breeding and Weaning

JoVE 10293

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Millions of mice and rats are bred for use in biomedical research each year. Worldwide, there are several large commercial breeding facilities that supply mice to research laboratories, but many facilities choose to also breed mice and rats in-house to reduce costs and increase research options. When breeding in the animal facility, researchers are able to manipulate the genetics of the animals, time the pregnancies to meet the needs of the research, and work with embryos and neonates as required. Mice and rats can be bred in a variety of schemes and methods. Technical procedures, such as the use of vaginal cytology, visualization of the vaginal area, and observation of copulatory plugs, have been developed to assist with the synchronization of breeding to correspond to research requirements. This manuscript is an overview of the basic fundamentals of mouse and rat breeding and technical procedures used. More detailed descriptions of the complex breeding schemes, and the full description of the methods for vaginal cytology, are available in the list of references.


 Lab Animal Research

Biofuels: Producing Ethanol from Cellulosic Material

JoVE 10014

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

In this experiment, cellulosic material (such as corn stalks, leaves, grasses, etc.) will be used as a feedstock for the production of ethanol. The cellulosic material is first pretreated (ground and heated), digested with enzymes, and then fermented with yeast. Ethanol production is monitored using an ethanol probe. The experiment can be extended to optimize ethanol production by varying the feedstock used, pretreatment conditions, enzyme variation, yeast variation, etc. An alternative method of monitoring the reaction is to measure the carbon dioxide produced (using a gas sensor) instead of the ethanol. As a low-tech alternative, glucose meters (found in any drug store) can be used to monitor the glucose during the process, if an ethanol probe or carbon dioxide gas sensor is not available. With an increased emphasis on ‘inquiry-based learning”, scientific probes are becoming more popular. Handheld devices like the Vernier Lab Quest used in conjunction with a variety of probes (such as those for conductivity, dissolved oxygen, voltage, and more) allow for less focus on collecting data and/or making graphs and more on analyzing the data and making predictions. Anothe


 Environmental Science

Empirical, Metagenomic, and Computational Techniques Illuminate the Mechanisms by which Fungicides Compromise Bee Health

1Vegetable Crop Research Unit, USDA-ARS, 2Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 4Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agricolas y Pecuarias, 5Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 6Laboratory of Genetics, Genome Center of Wisconsin, 7DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Wisconsin Energy Institute, 8J.F. Crow Institute for the Study of Evolution, University of Wisconsin-Madison

JoVE 54631


 Environment

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