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Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from Rivers and Lakes.

The Water Cycle

JoVE 10932

The Earth’s hydrosphere includes all of the areas where the storage and movement of water occurs. Since water is the basis of all living processes, the cycling of water is extremely important to ecosystem dynamics.

The water cycle begins as the sun warms surface water on the land and in oceans, causing it to evaporate and enter the atmosphere as vapor. The water vapor condenses into clouds and eventually falls as precipitation in the form of rain, snow or hail. After falling back to the Earth, water may enter large bodies of water, evaporate again, remain on the surface as runoff, or seep into the soil, where it may be absorbed by plants and transpired (released from pores in the leaves and evaporated into the atmosphere) or become groundwater. Deep groundwater may form reservoirs, or aquifers, and shallow groundwater eventually reaches a body of water, where it can be evaporated as surface water to continue the cycle. Human cells are over 70% water, and almost all organisms on land require fresh water to survive. However, 97.5% of the water on Earth is saltwater, and less than 1% of freshwater is accessible through rivers and lakes. Most water on Earth exists as ice, groundwater, or saltwater in the oceans and seas, and is inaccessible to many plants, animals, and fungi, and unavailable for short-term cycling. In these forms, water is stor

 Core: Ecosystems

Physiology of the Circulatory System - Prep Student

JoVE 10569

Measuring Blood Pressure
To prepare for the blood pressure exercise, simply place the appropriate number of alcohol swabs, sphygmomanometers, and stethoscopes at the front of the classroom.
Be sure to check over each of the component parts of the sphygmomanometers, including the tubing, cuff, manometer, and bulb to ensure they are undamaged.…

 Lab Bio

An Overview of bGDGT Biomarker Analysis for Paleoclimatology

JoVE 10256

Source: Laboratory of Jeff Salacup - University of Massachusetts Amherst


Throughout this series of videos, natural samples were extracted and purified in search of organic compounds, called biomarkers, that can relate information on climates and environments of the past. One of the samples analyzed was sediment. Sediments accumulate…

 Earth Science

Levels of Organization

JoVE 10648

Biological organization is the classification of biological structures, ranging from atoms at the bottom of the hierarchy to the Earth’s biosphere. Each level of the hierarchy represents an increase in complexity that builds upon the previous level.

The most basic levels include atoms, molecules, and biomolecules. Atoms, the smallest unit of ordinary matter, are composed of a nucleus and electrons. Molecules comprise two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds, most commonly covalent, ionic, or metallic bonds. Biomolecules are molecules found in living organisms, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Biomolecules are often polymers—large molecules that are created from smaller, repeating units. For instance, proteins are composed of amino acids, and nucleic acids are composed of nucleotides. Biomolecules can be endogenous or exogenous. Endogenous means that the biomolecule is produced inside a living organism. Biomolecules can also be consumed; for example, a cow gets carbohydrates from digesting grass (exogenous), but the grass must produce the carbohydrates through photosynthesis (endogenous). The next hierarchical level comprises subcellular structures called organelles. Organelles are made up of biomolecules and compartmentalize eukaryotic cells. Organelle means “little organ” as

 Core: Scientific Inquiry

Zebrafish Maintenance and Husbandry

JoVE 5152

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a powerful vertebrate model system for studying development, modeling disease, and screening for novel therapeutics. Due to their small size, large numbers of zebrafish can be housed in the laboratory at low cost. Although zebrafish are relatively easy to maintain, special consideration must be given to both diet and water quality to in order to optimize …

 Biology II

An Introduction to the Zebrafish: Danio rerio

JoVE 5128

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are small freshwater fish that are used as model organisms for biomedical research. The many strengths of these fish include their high degree of genetic conservation with humans and their simple, inexpensive maintenance. Additionally, gene expression can be easily manipulated in zebrafish embryos, and their transparency allows for observation of developmental…

 Biology II

Bioindication Testing of Stream Environment Suitability for Young Freshwater Pearl Mussels Using In Situ Exposure Methods

1Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, 2T. G. Masaryk Water Research Institute, 3Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague

JoVE 57446

 Environment

Multimodal Hierarchical Imaging of Serial Sections for Finding Specific Cellular Targets within Large Volumes

1Cryo Electron Microscopy, Centre for Advanced Materials, Universität Heidelberg, 2Heidelberg Karlsruhe Research Partnership (HEiKA), 3Cryo Electron Microscopy, BioQuant, Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, 4Institute for Automation and Applied Computer Science, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 5Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH, 6Electron Microscopy Core Facility, Universität Heidelberg

JoVE 57059

 Developmental Biology

High-Throughput, Multi-Image Cryohistology of Mineralized Tissues

1Department of Reconstructive Sciences, University of Connecticut Health Center, 2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, 4Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester

JoVE 54468

 Biology

Assessment of the Synaptic Interface of Primary Human T Cells from Peripheral Blood and Lymphoid Tissue

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, 2Department of Microbiology and Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, 4Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Medical Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University

JoVE 58143

 Immunology and Infection

Cortisol Extraction from Sturgeon Fin and Jawbone Matrices

1College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, 2Team of An Educational Program for Specialists in Global Animal Science, Brain Korea 21 Plus Project, Konkuk University, 3Persian Gesture, 4Department of Animal Science and Technology, College of Animal Bioscience and Technology, Konkuk University, 5Department of Animal Science, Animal Physiology, AgResearch, 6Faculty of Agriculture, Animal Science Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

JoVE 59961

 Environment

Enhanced Rabies Surveillance Using a Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test

1Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Wildlife Services, Knoxville, TN, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Wildlife Services, Sutton, MA, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 3Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Wildlife Services, Milton, FL, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 4Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Wildlife Services, Concord, NH, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 5Lyssa LLC

JoVE 59416

 Immunology and Infection

Determination of the Settling Rate of Clay/Cyanobacterial Floccules

1Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, 3Department of Earth Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 4Earth Sciences Department, University of Toronto

JoVE 57176

 Environment
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