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Gene Conversion: The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.

Gene Silencing with Morpholinos

JoVE 5326

Morpholino-mediated gene silencing is a common technique used to study roles of specific genes during development. Morpholinos inhibit gene expression by hybridizing to complementary mRNAs. Due to their unique chemistry, morpholinos are easy to produce and store, which makes them remarkably cost effective compared to other gene silencing methods.

This video reviews proper experimental design when using these oligonucleotides. Following that, an explanation of morpholino microinjection techniques in zebrafish and the analysis of resulting phenotypes will be discussed. Finally, we showcase examples of specific applications where morpholino technology is used to model developmental disorders or to study tissue regeneration.


 Developmental Biology

DNA Methylation Analysis

JoVE 5550

Methylation at CpG dinucleotides is a chemical modification of DNA hypothesized to play important roles in regulating gene expression. In particular, the methylation of clusters of methylation sites, called “CpG islands”, near promoters and other gene regulatory elements may contribute to the stable silencing of genes, for example, during epigenetic processes such as genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation. At the same time, aberrant CpG methylation has been shown to be associated with cancer.In this video, the biological functions and mechanisms of DNA methylation will be presented, along with various techniques used to identify methylation sites in the genome. We will then examine the steps of bisulfite analysis, one of the most commonly used methods for detecting DNA methylation, as well as several applications of this technique.


 Genetics

An Introduction to Saccharomyces cerevisiae

JoVE 5081

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commonly known as baker’s yeast) is a single-celled eukaryote that is frequently used in scientific research. S. cerevisiae is an attractive model organism due to the fact that its genome has been sequenced, its genetics are easily manipulated, and it is very easy to maintain in the lab. Because many yeast proteins are similar in sequence and function to those found in other organisms, studies performed in yeast can help us to determine how a particular gene or protein functions in higher eukaryotes (including humans). This video provides an introduction to the biology of this model organism, how it was discovered, and why labs all over the world have selected it as their model of choice. Previous studies performed in S. cerevisiae that have contributed to our understanding of important cellular processes such as the cell cycle, aging, and cell death are also discussed. Finally, the video describes some of the many ways in which yeast cells are put to work in modern scientific research, including protein purification and the study of DNA repair mechanisms and other cellular processes related to Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.


 Biology I

Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing for Assessment of DNA Methylation at Base Pair Resolution

1Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 2Institute for Computational Biomedicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 3Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College, 4Department of Pathology, University of Michigan

JoVE 52246


 Biology

Selecting Multiple Biomarker Subsets with Similarly Effective Binary Classification Performances

1College of Computer Science and Technology, and Key Laboratory of Symbolic Computation and Knowledge Engineering of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, 2College of Software, Jilin University, 3Ultrasonography Department, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, 4Department of Pathogenobiology, College of Basic Medical Science, Jilin University

JoVE 57738


 Cancer Research

Rapid Neuronal Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Measuring Network Activity on Micro-electrode Arrays

1Department of Cognitive Neurosciences, Radboudumc, 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, 3Department of Human Genetics, Radboudumc, 4Department of Molecular Developmental Biology, Radboud University

JoVE 54900


 Developmental Biology

Structural Studies of Macromolecules in Solution Using Small Angle X-Ray Scattering

1Alberta RNA Research and Training Institute, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Lethbridge, 2Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, 3Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 4DiscoveryLab, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58538


 JoVE In-Press

A Zebrafish Embryo Model for In Vivo Visualization and Intravital Analysis of Biomaterial-Associated Staphylococcus Aureus Infection

1Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Microbiology, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute, 2MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Department of Biomaterials Science and Technology, University of Twente, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, W.J. Kolff Institute, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 4Institute of Biology, Leiden University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58523


 JoVE In-Press

Caffeine Extraction, Enzymatic Activity and Gene Expression of Caffeine Synthase from Plant Cell Suspensions

1Unidad de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de Plantas, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, 2CONACYT, Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Campus de Ciencias Exactas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán

JoVE 58166


 Biochemistry

Comprehensive Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Safety of Placenta-Targeted Drug Delivery Using Three Complementary Methods

1Laboratory for Reproductive Health, Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, 3Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Process and Technology for High-efficiency Conversion, College of Chemistry and Material Sciences, Heilongjiang University, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine

JoVE 58219


 Bioengineering

Long-term In Vivo Tracking of Inflammatory Cell Dynamics Within Drosophila Pupae

1School of Biochemistry, Biomedical Sciences, University of Bristol, 2School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Biomedical Sciences, University of Bristol, 3MRC Centre for Inflammation Research, University of Edinburgh, Queens Medical Research Institute, 4School of Physiology, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, Biomedical Sciences, University of Bristol

JoVE 57871


 Immunology and Infection

Induction of Nephrotic Syndrome in Mice by Retrobulbar Injection of Doxorubicin and Prevention of Volume Retention by Sustained Release Aprotinin

1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Vascular Disease, Nephrology and Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital Tübingen, 2Institute of Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases (IDM) of the Helmholtz Center Munich, University Tübingen, 3German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), University Tübingen

JoVE 57642


 Medicine

Determination of the Settling Rate of Clay/Cyanobacterial Floccules

1Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, 3Department of Earth Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 4Earth Sciences Department, University of Toronto

JoVE 57176


 Environment

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