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Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of Viruses.

Tissue Regeneration with Somatic Stem Cells

JoVE 5339

Somatic or adult stem cells, like embryonic stem cells, are capable of self-renewal but demonstrate a restricted differentiation potential. Nonetheless, these cells are crucial to homeostatic processes and play an important role in tissue repair. By studying and manipulating this cell population, scientist may be able to develop new regenerative therapies for injuries and diseases.

This video first defines somatic stem cells, and then explores the role these cells play in tissue regeneration. This is emphasized in a description of a protocol that isolates muscle satellite cells and uses them to repair muscle damage in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy. Finally, we discuss specific tissue regeneration studies utilizing somatic stem cells.


 Developmental Biology

Protein Crystallization

JoVE 5689

Protein crystallization, obtaining a solid lattice of biomolecules, elucidates protein structure and enables the study of protein function. Crystallization involves drying purified protein under a combination of many factors, including pH, temperature, ionic strength, and protein concentration. Once crystals are obtained, the protein structure can be elucidated by x-ray diffraction and computation of an electron density model. This video introduces protein crystallization and shows a general procedure. Protein expression and purification, crystallization, and x-ray diffraction are covered in the procedure. Applications of protein crystallization include in silico drug design, binding site determination, and membrane protein structure analysis. Protein crystallization is the process of obtaining a latticed solid form of a protein. These crystals are especially valuable to structural biologists, assisting in the study of protein function. Other techniques, such as mass spec or SDS-PAGE, can only provide information on the one-dimensional structure of proteins. Protein crystallization is complemented by the techniques of recombinant protein expression and x-ray diffraction. This video will show the principles of protein crystallization, a general laboratory procedure, and several of its applications in the


 Biochemistry

Molecular Cloning

JoVE 5074

Molecular cloning is a set of methods, which are used to insert recombinant DNA into a vector - a carrier of DNA molecules that will replicate recombinant DNA fragments in host organisms. The DNA fragment, which may be a gene, can be isolated from a prokaryotic or eukaryotic specimen. Following isolation of the fragment of interest, or insert, both the vector and insert must be cut with restriction enzymes and purified. The purified pieces are joined together though a technique called ligation. The enzyme that catalyzes the ligation reaction is known as ligase. This video explains the major methods that are combined, in tandem, to comprise the overall molecular cloning procedure. Critical aspects of molecular cloning are discussed, such as the need for molecular cloning strategy and how to keep track of transformed bacterial colonies. Verification steps, such as checking purified plasmid for the presence of insert with restrictions digests and sequencing are also mentioned.


 Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Pairwise Growth Competition Assay for Determining the Replication Fitness of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses

1Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, 2Departments of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, 3U.S Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 4Henry M. Jackson Foundation

JoVE 52610


 Immunology and Infection

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Early Viral Entry Assays for the Identification and Evaluation of Antiviral Compounds

1Department of Chinese Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 4Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, 5Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 6Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University

JoVE 53124


 Immunology and Infection

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High-throughput Detection Method for Influenza Virus

1Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Immunotherapy, Blood Research Institute, 2Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 3Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Blood Research Institute, 4City of Milwaukee Health Department Laboratory, 5Division of Hematology-Oncology/BMT, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Medical College of Wisconsin, 6Division of Hematology and Oncology, Dept Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin

JoVE 3623


 Immunology and Infection

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Detection of the Genome and Transcripts of a Persistent DNA Virus in Neuronal Tissues by Fluorescent In situ Hybridization Combined with Immunostaining

1Virus and Centromere Team, Centre de Génétique et Physiologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UMR 5534, 2Université de Lyon 1, 3Laboratoire d'excellence, LabEX DEVweCAN, 4Institut de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS UPR 3296, 5Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, INSERM U1052, CNRS UMR 5286

JoVE 51091


 Neuroscience

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Generation of Escape Variants of Neutralizing Influenza Virus Monoclonal Antibodies

1Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 3The Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, The Knapp Center for Lupus and Immunology Research, The University of Chicago

JoVE 56067


 Immunology and Infection

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Quantitative Analyses of all Influenza Type A Viral Hemagglutinins and Neuraminidases using Universal Antibodies in Simple Slot Blot Assays

1Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health canada, 2National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, The State Food and Drug Administration, Beijing, 3Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 4Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, 5National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada

JoVE 2784


 Immunology and Infection

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Preparation and In Vitro Characterization of Magnetized miR-modified Endothelial Cells

1Reference and Translation Center for Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy (RTC), Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Rostock, 2Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 3Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, 4Electron Microscopy Center, University of Rostock

JoVE 55567


 Medicine

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