1Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Québec, Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Université Laval, 2Centre de recherche du CHU Sainte-Justine
1Department of Neurology, University Hospital Wuerzburg
1Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 2Department of Neurology, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Functional Neurosurgery and Stereotaxy, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf
1Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biological & Materials Sciences Department, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, 2Michigan Center for Oral Health Research (MCOHR), University of Michigan School of Dentistry, 3Translational Neuroimaging Laboratory, Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan, 4PET Physics Section, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Radiology Department, University of Michigan, 53DLab, University of Michigan, 6Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan
1Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina, 2Biomedical Research Imaging Center, University of North Carolina, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, 4Curriculum in Neurobiology, University of North Carolina, 5School of Medicine, University of North Carolina
1UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London
1Department of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 3EZ BioResearch LLC
1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University
1Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Division of Brain Sciences, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London
1Psychology Department, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 2Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 3Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
1Department of Psychology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Source: Laboratories of Gary Lewandowski, Dave Strohmetz, and Natalie Ciarocco—Monmouth University
A within-subjects, or repeated-measures, design is an experimental design where all the participants receive every level of the treatment, i.e., every independent variable. For example, in a candy taste test, the researcher would want every participant to taste and rate each type of candy.
This video demonstrates a within-subjects experiment (i.e., one where there is an independent variable with several variations or levels) that examines how different motivational messages (e.g., hard work, self-affirmation, outcomes, and positive affect) influence willingness to exert physical effort. As a within-subjects design, the participant will read each of the four types of motivational messages and then lift weights to measure physical effort. By providing an overview of how a researcher conducts a repeated-measures experiment, this video allows viewers to see how to address order effects through counterbalancing, which involves a systematic approach to making sure all possible orders of the conditions occur in the study.
Psychological studies often use higher …