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Gloves, Protective: Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.
 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Basic Care Procedures

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Mice and rats account for over 90% of the animals used for biomedical research. The proper care of these research animals is critical to the outcome of experiments. There are general procedures that apply to the majority of these mice and rats, but some of the animals, such as the immunocompromised ones, require additional steps to be taken to sustain them for experimentation. Commonly used immunocompromised mice include those that have naturally occurred in inbred mice and those that have been created through genetic engineering. The first immunocompromised mice used in research were "nude" mice. The BALB/c Nude (nu) mouse was discovered in 1966, within a BALB/c colony that was producing mice lacking both hair and a thymus. These athymic mice have an inhibited immune system that is devoid of T cells. The value of this animal was soon discovered for the use in studies of microbial infections, immune deficiencies, and autoimmunity. Although not as commonly used as the nude mouse, there is also a nude rat. The nude rat is T cell deficient and shows depleted cell populations in thymus-dependent areas of peripheral lymphoid organs. Another naturally occurring immune deficient mouse is the severe comb

 Science Education: Essentials of Nursing Skills

Preparing and Administering Topical Medications

JoVE Science Education

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Topical medications are applied directly to the body surfaces, including the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, ears, nose, vagina, and rectum. There are many classes of topical medications, such as creams, ointments, lotions, patches, and aerosol sprays. Medications that are applied to the skin to produce slow, controlled, systemic effect are also referred to as transdermal. Transdermal absorption can be altered if lesions, burns, or breakdowns are present at the application site. Many transdermal medications are delivered via adhesive patch to achieve the slow, controlled, systemic effect. The patch should be applied to clean and hairless skin areas that do not undergo excessive movement, such as the back of the shoulder or thigh. Other topical creams or eye ointments should be applied according to the packaging and manufacturer instructions using an application device. When instilling eardrop medications, never occlude the ear canal, as this may increase pressure and rupture the ear drum. Medications that can be administered via a topical route include antibiotics, narcotics, hormones, and even chemotherapeutics. This requires adherence to the five "rights" of medicati

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Isolation of Murine Embryonic Hemogenic Endothelial Cells

1Departments of Medicine, Genetics and Biomedical Engineering, Yale Cardiovascular Research Center, Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Program, Yale Stem Cell Center, Yale University School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 3Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine


JoVE 54150

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 1. Biosafety Level 4 Suit Laboratory Suite Entry and Exit Procedures

1Integrated Research Facility at Frederick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), 2Environmental Health and Safety, Biological and Chemical Safety Program, University of Texas Medical Branch


JoVE 52317

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 4. Medical Imaging Procedures

1Integrated Research Facility at Frederick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH)


JoVE 53601

 Science Education: Essentials of Nursing Skills

Central Venous Access Device Dressing Change

JoVE Science Education

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT

Central venous access devices (CVAD), commonly known as central lines or central catheters, are large-bore intravenous (IV) catheters that are introduced into the central circulation. Typically, CVADs terminate in the superior vena cava, just outside of the right atrium of the heart, but they may also terminate in any one of the great veins (i.e., aorta, inferior vena cava, brachiocephalic vein, pulmonary artery, internal iliac vein, or common femoral vein). Patients may need a CVAD for any number of reasons. CVADs allow for the rapid infusion of fluids to treat significant hypovolemia or shock. They are also beneficial when administering vasoactive medications, highly concentrated medications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN), or chemotherapy, because the increased blood volume in these areas allows for the hemodilution of these potentially caustic or reactive agents. Patients who must receive multiple non-compatible IV medications, those that require long-term IV medications, or those with limited vascular access may also require the placement of a CVAD. These devices may be tunneled (i.e., inserted into a vein at one location and tunneled under the skin to emerge through the skin at another site)

 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Rodent Handling and Restraint Techniques

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN 

It has been demonstrated that even minimal handling of mice and rats is stressful to the animals. Handling for cage changing and other noninvasive procedures causes an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and other physiological parameters, such as serum corticosterone levels. Fluctuations can continue for up to several hours. The methods of restraint required for injections and blood withdrawals also cause physiological changes that can potentially affect scientific data. Training in the proper handling of mice and rats is required to minimize the effects to the animals.1 Mice and rats can be restrained manually with restraint devices, or with chemical agents. Manual methods and the use of restraint devices are covered in this manuscript. All restraint methods include the process of lifting the animals from their home cage.

 JoVE Medicine

Renal Capsule Xenografting and Subcutaneous Pellet Implantation for the Evaluation of Prostate Carcinogenesis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

1Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Medical Scientist (MD/PhD) Training Program, University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry, 3Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison


JoVE 50574

 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Sterile Tissue Harvest

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

In 1959 The 3 R's were introduced by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch in their book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The 3 R's are replacement, reduction, and refinement of the use of animals in research.1 The use of cell lines and tissue cultures that originated from research animals is a replacement technique, as it allows for many experiments to be conducted in vitro. Harvesting tissues and organs for use in cell and tissue cultures requires aseptic technique to avoid contamination of the tissues. Sterile harvest is also necessary for protein and RNA analysis and metabolic profiling of tissues. This manuscript will discuss the process of sterile organ harvest in rats and mice.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Utilization of Capsules for Negative Staining of Viral Samples within Biocontainment

1Pathology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), 2Diagnostic Systems Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), 3Microscopy Innovations LLC


JoVE 56122

 Science Education: Essentials of Environmental Microbiology

Aseptic Technique in Environmental Science

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Luisa Ikner

Aseptic technique is a fundamental skill widely practiced in the field of environmental microbiology that requires a balance of mindfulness and practice in the laboratory. Proper use of this technique reduces the likelihood of bacterial or fungal contamination of reagents, culture media, and environmental samples. Aseptic technique is also vital to ensure data integrity and maintain the purity of culture libraries that may be comprised of very rare and difficult to culture isolates. Sources of contamination in the laboratory environment include airborne microorganisms (including those adhering to dust and lint particles), microbes present on the laboratory bench workspace or on unsterilized glassware or equipment, and microbes transferred from the body and hair of the researcher. The use of aseptic technique is also a safety measure that lowers the potential for the transmission of microorganisms to researchers, which is particularly important when working with pathogens.

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