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Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.

Microscopy and Staining: Gram, Capsule, and Endospore Staining

JoVE 10513

Source: Rhiannon M. LeVeque1, Natalia Martin1, Andrew J. Van Alst1, and Victor J. DiRita1
1 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America


Bacteria are diverse microorganisms found nearly everywhere on Earth. Many properties help distinguish them from…

 Microbiology

Gram Staining of Bacteria from Environmental Sources

JoVE 10092

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Luisa Ikner


The spectrum of research in environmental microbiology is broad in scope and application potential. Whether the work is bench-scale with known bacterial isolates, or in the field collecting soil or water samples…

 Environmental Microbiology

Bacterial Signaling

JoVE 10713

At times, a group of bacteria behaves like a community. To achieve this, they engage in quorum sensing, the perception of higher cell density that results in a shift in gene expression. Quorum sensing involves both extracellular and intracellular signaling. The signaling cascade starts with a molecule called an autoinducer (AI). Individual bacteria produce AIs that move out of the bacterial cell membrane into the extracellular space. AIs can move passively along a concentration gradient out of the cell, or be actively transported across the bacterial membrane. When cell density in the bacterial populations is low, the AIs diffuse away from the bacteria, keeping the environmental concentration of AIs low. As bacteria reproduce and continue to excrete AIs, the concentration of AIs increases, eventually reaching a threshold concentration. This threshold permits AIs to bind membrane receptors on the bacteria, triggering changes in gene expression across the whole bacterial community. Many bacteria are broadly classified as gram positive or gram negative. These terms refer to the color that the bacteria take on when treated with a series of staining solutions which were developed by Hans Christian Joachim Gram over a century ago. If bacteria pick up a purple color, they are gram-positive; if they look red, they are gram-negative. These stain colors are pic

 Core: Cell Signaling

Microbial and Fungal Diversity - Student Protocol

JoVE 10602

Examining Microbial Colony Structures
To begin, collect your allocated culture plates and then remove the Parafilm and lid from one of them.
Place the uncovered plate under a dissecting microscope and then observe the individual communities within each quadrant of the plate.
As the colonies are identified, fill out the observed colony…

 Lab Bio

Microbial and Fungal Diversity- Concept

JoVE 10601

Bacteria and fungi are two highly diverse groups of organisms that can have significant beneficial or detrimental impacts on human health. For this reason, it is important to understand and distinguish between individual species of these groups. As you will recall, biological taxonomists group organisms based on their phylogenetic relatedness. The three domains of life, Bacteria, Archaea, and…

 Lab Bio

Transformation of E. coli Cells Using an Adapted Calcium Chloride Procedure

JoVE 10515

Source: Natalia Martin1, Andrew J. Van Alst1, Rhiannon M. LeVeque1, and Victor J. DiRita1
1 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University


Bacteria have the ability to exchange genetic material (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid, DNA) in a process known as horizontal gene transfer. Incorporating exogenous DNA…

 Microbiology

What is the Immune System?

JoVE 10895

The immune system comprises diverse biological structures and processes that protect the body from disease. These processes can be classified into innate and adaptive immunity. To work effectively, the immune system needs to detect pathogens by distinguishing the body’s own structures from foreign elements. If this determination fails, autoimmune diseases occur in which the immune system reacts against the body’s own tissue. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against infection. It comprises physical barriers and a variety of cells that act quickly and non-specifically against elements that are foreign to the host (i.e., non-self). Examples of physical barriers in mammals are skin, the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, and secretions, such as mucus or saliva. Once an invader overcomes physical barriers, cells of the inflammatory response are recruited to the entry site: mast cells release a plethora of chemicals that attract other cells of the innate immune system and activates the adaptive immune system. Phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages, ingest and destroy pathogens. Natural killer cells, a special type of white blood cell, destroy virus-infected cells. Together, cells of the innate immune system eradicate the invader or hinder its spread, and activate the adaptive immune system. How can an organism

 Core: Immune System

Microbial and Fungal Diversity - Prep Student

JoVE 10638

Nutrient Agar and Bacterial Culture Plate Preparation
Add 23 g of nutrient agar to a 2,000 mL beaker containing 1 L of distilled water 4 – 5 days before the activity.
Place the beaker on a hotplate and set the hotplate to high, stirring the mixture with a stirring rod.
When the agar has dissolved into the water, use a hot pad to…

 Lab Bio

16S rRNA Sequencing: A PCR-based Technique to Identify Bacterial Species

JoVE 10510

Source: Ewa Bukowska-Faniband1, Tilde Andersson1, Rolf Lood1
1 Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Division of Infection Medicine, Biomedical Center, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden


Planet Earth is a habitat for millions of bacterial species, each of which has specific characteristics. Identification of bacterial species is…

 Microbiology

Analyzing Cellular Internalization of Nanoparticles and Bacteria by Multi-spectral Imaging Flow Cytometry

1Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, 2Amnis Corporation, 3Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University

JoVE 3884

 Bioengineering

From Constructs to Crystals – Towards Structure Determination of β-barrel Outer Membrane Proteins

1Department of Biological Sciences, Markey Center for Structural Biology, Purdue University, 2National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health, 3National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National Institutes of Health

JoVE 53245

 Chemistry

Antimicrobial Peptides Produced by Selective Pressure Incorporation of Non-canonical Amino Acids

1Department of Biocatalysis, Institute of Chemistry, Technische Universität Berlin, 2Department of Bioenergetics, Institute of Chemistry, Technische Universität Berlin, 3Molecular Genetics Group, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Groningen

JoVE 57551

 Bioengineering

Isolation of Single Intracellular Bacterial Communities Generated from a Murine Model of Urinary Tract Infection for Downstream Single-cell Analysis

1Infectious Diseases Group, Genome Institute of Singapore, 2Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore

JoVE 58829

 Immunology and Infection

Novel Diagnostics in Revision Arthroplasty: Implant Sonication and Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

1Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, 2Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Bonn, 3Division of EU Cooperation/Microbiology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institute

JoVE 55147

 Medicine
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